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  • Author or Editor: Pejman Ghanouni x
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Marissa D’Souza, Kevin S. Chen, Jarrett Rosenberg, W. Jeffrey Elias, Howard M. Eisenberg, Ryder Gwinn, Takaomi Taira, Jin Woo Chang, Nir Lipsman, Vibhor Krishna, Keiji Igase, Kazumichi Yamada, Haruhiko Kishima, Rees Cosgrove, Jordi Rumià, Michael G. Kaplitt, Hidehiro Hirabayashi, Dipankar Nandi, Jaimie M. Henderson, Kim Butts Pauly, Mor Dayan, Casey H. Halpern and Pejman Ghanouni


Skull density ratio (SDR) assesses the transparency of the skull to ultrasound. Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor (ET) patients with a lower SDR may be less effective, and the risk for complications may be increased. To address these questions, the authors analyzed clinical outcomes of MRgFUS thalamotomy based on SDRs.


In 189 patients, 3 outcomes were correlated with SDRs. Efficacy was based on improvement in Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST) scores 1 year after MRgFUS. Procedural efficiency was determined by the ease of achieving a peak voxel temperature of 54°C. Safety was based on the rate of the most severe procedure-related adverse event. SDRs were categorized at thresholds of 0.45 and 0.40, selected based on published criteria.


Of 189 patients, 53 (28%) had an SDR < 0.45 and 20 (11%) had an SDR < 0.40. There was no significant difference in improvement in CRST scores between those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (58% ± 24%), 0.40 ≤ SDR < 0.45 (i.e., SDR ≥ 0.40 but < 0.45) (63% ± 27%), and SDR < 0.40 (49% ± 28%; p = 0.0744). Target temperature was achieved more often in those with an SDR ≥ 0.45 (p < 0.001). Rates of adverse events were lower in the groups with an SDR < 0.45 (p = 0.013), with no severe adverse events in these groups.


MRgFUS treatment of ET can be effectively and safely performed in patients with an SDR < 0.45 and an SDR < 0.40, although the procedure is more efficient when SDR ≥ 0.45.