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  • Author or Editor: Kenichi Sato x
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Hidenori Endo, Yasushi Matsumoto, Ryushi Kondo, Kenichi Sato, Miki Fujimura, Takashi Inoue, Hiroaki Shimizu, Akira Takahashi and Teiji Tominaga


Internal coil trapping is a treatment method used to prevent rebleeding from a ruptured intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Postoperative medullary infarctions have been reported as a complication of this treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between a postoperative medullary infarction and the clinical outcomes for patients with ruptured VADs treated with internal coil trapping during the acute stage of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).


A retrospective study identified 38 patients who presented between 2006 and 2011 with ruptured VADs and underwent internal coil trapping during the acute stage of SAH. The SAH was identified on CT scanning, and the diagnosis for VAD was rendered by cerebral angiography. Under general anesthesia, the dissection was packed with coils, beginning at the distal end and proceeding proximally. When VAD involved the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) with a large cerebellar territory, an occipital artery (OA)–PICA anastomosis was created prior to internal coil trapping. The pre- and postoperative radiological findings, clinical course, and outcomes were analyzed.


The internal coil trapping was completed within 24 hours after admission. An OA-PICA anastomosis followed by internal coil trapping was performed in 5 patients. Postoperative rebleeding did not occur in any patient during a mean follow-up period of 16 months. The postoperative MRI studies showed medullary infarctions in 18 patients (47%). The mean length of the trapped VAD for the infarction group (15.7 ± 6.0 mm) was significantly longer than that of the noninfarction group (11.5 ± 4.3 mm) (p = 0.019). Three of the 5 patients treated with OA-PICA anastomosis had postoperative medullary infarction. The clinical outcomes at 6 months were favorable (modified Rankin Scale Scores 0–2) for 23 patients (60.5%) and unfavorable (modified Rankin Scale Scores 3–6) for 15 patients (39.5%). Of the 18 patients with postoperative medullary infarctions, the outcomes were favorable for 6 patients (33.3%) and unfavorable for 12 patients (66.7%). A logistic regression analysis predicted the following independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes: postoperative medullary infarctions (OR 21.287 [95% CI 2.622–498.242], p = 0.003); preoperative rebleeding episodes (OR 7.450 [95% CI 1.140–71.138], p = 0.036); and a history of diabetes mellitus (OR 45.456 [95% CI 1.993–5287.595], p = 0.013).


A postoperative medullary infarction was associated with unfavorable outcomes after internal coil trapping for ruptured VADs. Coil occlusion of the long segment of the VA led to medullary infarction, and an OA-PICA bypass did not prevent medullary infarction. A VA-sparing procedure, such as flow diversion by stenting, is an alternative treatment in the future, if this approach is demonstrated to effectively prevent rebleeding.

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Alaa Elkordy, Hidenori Endo, Kenichi Sato, Yasushi Matsumoto, Ryushi Kondo, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Toshiki Endo, Miki Fujimura and Teiji Tominaga


The anterior and posterior choroidal arteries are often recruited to supply arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving important paraventricular structures, such as the basal ganglia, internal capsule, optic radiation, lateral geniculate body, and medial temporal lobe. Endovascular embolization through these arteries is theoretically dangerous because they supply eloquent territories, are of small caliber, and lack collaterals. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of embolization through these arteries.


This study retrospectively reviewed 13 patients with cerebral AVMs who underwent endovascular embolization through the choroidal arteries between 2006 and 2014. Embolization was performed as a palliative procedure before open surgery or Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Computed tomography and MRI were performed the day after embolization to assess any surgical complications. The incidence and type of complications and their association with clinical outcomes were analyzed.


Decreased blood flow was achieved in all patients after embolization. Postoperative CT detected no hemorrhagic complications. In contrast, postoperative MRI detected that 4 of the 13 patients (30.7%) developed infarctions: 3 patients after embolization through the anterior choroidal artery, and 1 patient after embolization through the lateral posterior choroidal artery. Two of the 4 patients in whom embolization was from the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (proximal to the plexal point) developed symptomatic infarction of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, 1 of whom developed morbidity (7.7%). The treatment-related mortality rate was 0%. Additional treatment was performed in 12 patients: open surgery in 9 and Gamma Knife radiosurgery in 3 patients. Complete obliteration was confirmed by angiography at the last follow-up in 10 patients. Recurrent bleeding from the AVMs did not occur in any of the cases during the follow-up period.


Ischemic complications are possible following the embolization of cerebral AVMs through the choroidal artery, even with modern neurointerventional devices and techniques. Although further study is needed, embolization through the choroidal artery may be an appropriate treatment option when the risk of surgery or radiosurgery is considered to outweigh the risk of embolization.