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  • Author or Editor: Nobuhito Saito x
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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Shunya Hanakita, Akitake Mukasa, Taichi Kin and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECTIVE

Skull base chondrosarcoma is one of the most intractable tumors because of its aggressive biological behavior and involvement of the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves (CNs). One of the most accepted treatment strategies for skull base chondrosarcoma has been surgical removal of the tumor in conjunction with proactive extensive radiation therapy (RT) to the original tumor bed. However, the optimal strategy has not been determined. The goal of this study was to evaluate the early results of endoscopic transnasal surgery (ETS).

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 19 consecutive patients who underwent ETS at their institution since 2010. Adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed only for the small residual tumors that were not resected to avoid critical neurological complications. Histological confirmation and evaluation of the MIB-1 index was performed in all cases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the actuarial rate of tumor-free survival.

RESULTS

The median tumor volume and maximal diameter were 14.5 cm3 (range 1.4–88.4 cm3) and 3.8 cm (range 1.5–6.7 cm), respectively. Nine patients (47%) had intradural extension of the tumor. Gross-total resection was achieved in 15 (78.9%) of the 19 patients, without any disabling complications. In 4 patients, the surgery resulted in subtotal (n = 2, 11%) or partial (n = 2, 11%) resection because the tumors involved critical structures, including the basilar artery or the lower CNs. These 4 patients were additionally treated with SRS. The median follow-up duration was 47, 28, and 27 months after the diagnosis, ETS, and SRS, respectively. In 1 patient with an anterior skull base chondrosarcoma, the tumor relapsed in the optic canal 1 year later and was treated with a second ETS. Favorable tumor control was achieved in all other patients. The actuarial tumor control rate was 93% at 5 years. At the final follow-up, all patients were alive and able to perform independent activities of daily living without continuous neurological sequelae.

CONCLUSIONS

These preliminary results suggest that ETS can achieve sufficient radical tumor removal, resulting in comparative resection rates with fewer neurological complications to those in previous reports. Although the follow-up periods of these cases were relatively short, elective SRS to the small tumor remnant may be rational, achieving successful tumor control in some cases, instead of using proactive extensive RT. Thus, the addition of RT should be discussed with each patient, after due consideration of histological grading and biological behavior. To determine the efficacy of this strategy, a larger case series with a longer follow-up period is essential. However, this strategy may be able to establish evidence in the management of skull base chondrosarcoma, providing less-invasive and effective options as an initial step of treatment.

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Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Shunya Hanakita, Keigo Suzukawa, Taichi Kin, Masaaki Shojima, Daichi Nakagawa and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECT

In recent years, application of endoscopic transnasal surgery (ETS) has been expanded to orbital lesions, and preliminary results have started to be published for medially located soft mass lesions. However, reports on experience with endoscopic intraorbital surgery aimed at resection of invasive skull base tumors remains quite limited. This report presents the authors’ experience with ETS for locally aggressive tumors involving the orbit.

METHODS

ETS was performed for 15 cases of aggressive tumors involving the orbit: 5 meningiomas (meningothelial, n = 3; atypical, n = 1; anaplastic, n = 1), 4 chordomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, and 4 others (metastasis from systemic myxofibrosarcoma, schwannoma, inverted papilloma, and acinic cell carcinoma, n = 1 each). Among these, 9 tumors were located outside the periorbita and 6 inside the periorbita. In 6 intraperiosteal tumors, 5 were intraconal lesions, of which 3 arose in the muscle cone (anaplastic meningioma, optic sheath meningioma, and metastatic myxofibrosarcoma), and 2 meningothelial meningioma had invaded from the sphenoid ridge or the cavernous sinus into the muscle cone through the optic canal and the superior orbital fissure. A case of schwannoma originated around the cavernous sinus and pterygopalatine fossa and extended extraconally into the periorbita. Intraoperatively, ethmoid air cells and the lamina papyracea were removed, and extraperiosteal tumors were safely approached. For intraperiosteal tumors, the periorbita was widely opened, and the tumors were approached through the surgical window between the rectus and oblique muscles.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved for 12 of the 15 tumors, including 2 intraconal lesions. After surgery, exophthalmos resolved in all 8 patients with this symptom, and diplopia resolved in 5 of 6 patients. Improvement of visual symptoms was reported by 4 of 5 patients with loss of visual acuity or constriction of the visual field. Postoperatively, 1 patient showed mild, transient worsening of existing facial dysesthesia, and another showed transient ptosis and mild hypesthesia of the forehead on the affected side. All those symptoms resolved within 3 months. No patients showed enophthalmos, worsening of diplopia or visual function, or impairment of olfaction after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

ETS appears acceptable as a less-invasive alternative for treating aggressive tumors involving the orbit. For extraperiosteal tumors, gross-total removal can generally be achieved without neurological complications. For intraperiosteal tumors, surgical indications should be carefully discussed, considering the relationship between the tumor and normal anatomy. Wide opening of the periorbital window is advocated to create a sufficient surgical pathway between the extraocular muscles, allowing a balance between functional preservation and successful tumor resection.

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Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Shunya Hanakita, Hirotaka Hasegawa, Masanori Yoshino, Yu Teranishi, Taichi Kin and Nobuhito Saito

OBJECTIVE

Reports about endoscopic endonasal surgery for skull base tumors involving the lateral part of petrous apex remain scarce. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic transsphenoidal anterior petrosal (ETAP) approach through the retrocarotid space for tumors involving the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus.

METHODS

The authors performed the ETAP approach in 10 patients with 11 tumors (bilateral in 1 patient) that extensively occupied the lateral part of petrous apex, e.g., the internal auditory canal and jugular fossa. Eight patients presented with diplopia (unilateral abducens nerve palsy), 3 with tinnitus, and 1 with unilateral hearing loss with facial palsy. After wide anterior sphenoidotomy, the sellar floor, clival recess, and carotid prominence were verified. Tumors were approached via an anteromedial petrosectomy through the retrocarotid triangular space, defined by the cavernous and vertical segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the clivus, and the petrooccipital fissure. The surgical window was easily enlarged by drilling the petrous bone along the petrooccipital fissure. After exposure of the tumor and ICA, dissection and resection of the tumor were mainly performed under direct visualization with 30° and 70° endoscopes.

RESULTS

Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 patients (9 tumors). In a patient with invasive meningioma, the tumor was strongly adherent to the ICA, necessitating partial resection. Postoperatively, all 8 patients who had presented with abducens nerve palsy preoperatively showed improvement within 6 months. In the patient presenting with hearing loss and facial palsy, the facial palsy completely resolved within 3 months, but hearing loss remained. Regarding complications, 3 patients showed mild and transient abducens nerve palsy resolving within 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Postoperative CSF rhinorrhea requiring surgical repair was observed in 1 patient. No patient exhibited hearing deterioration, facial palsy, or symptoms of lower cranial nerve palsy after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

The ETAP approach can offer a simple, less invasive option for invasive skull base tumors involving petrous regions, including the internal auditory canal, jugular fossa, and cavernous sinus. The ETAP approach can reach more extensive areas in the extradural regions around the petrous bone. The authors' results indicate that the transsphenoidal retrocarotid route is sufficient to approach the petrosal areas in select cases. Further expansion of the surgical field is not always necessary. However, experience with intradural lesions remains limited, and the extent of tumor resection largely depends on tumor characteristics. Application of the ETAP approach should thus be carefully determined in each patient, taking into consideration the size of the retrocarotid window and tumor characteristics.