✓ Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotizing arteritis that involves small- and medium-sized arteries in various organs. Although aneurysm formation in visceral arteries is a typical finding in PAN, intracranial aneurysms are much less common, and only a few cases of aneurysm rupture associated with this disease have been documented. In this paper, the authors report on a ruptured PAN aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery; the lesion was trapped and resected. On histological examination, extensive fibrinoid necrosis and an inflammatory infiltration of leukocytes were seen in the aneurysm wall. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a histologically confirmed PAN aneurysm.
Jun C. Takahashi, Nobuyuki Sakai, Koji Iihara, Hideki Sakai, Toshio Higashi, Shuji Kogure, Ayumi Taniguchi, Hatsue I. Ueda and Izumi Nagata
Koji Iihara, Nobuyuki Sakai, Kenichi Murao, Hideki Sakai, Toshio Higashi, Shuji Kogure, Jun C. Takahashi and Izumi Nagata
Object. The authors present a retrospective analysis of their experience in the treatment of vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms and propose a management strategy for such aneurysms, with special emphasis on the most formidable VA dissecting aneurysms, which involve the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA).
Methods. Since 1998, 18 patients with VA dissecting aneurysms, 11 of whom presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), have been treated by endovascular surgery at the authors' institution. Obliteration of the entire segment of the dissected site with coils (internal trapping) was performed for aneurysms without involvement of the origin of the PICA (12 cases; among these the treatment-related morbidity rate was 16.7%). The treatment strategy applied to PICA-involved VA dissecting aneurysms presenting with SAH (three cases) included proximal occlusion of the parent artery followed by internal trapping of the aneurysm (one case), proximal occlusion of the parent artery followed by occipital artery (OA)—PICA bypass (one case), and two-staged internal trapping of the aneurysm involving double PICAs (one case). For PICA-involved VA dissecting aneurysms that were not associated with SAH at presentation (three cases), OA—PICA bypass was performed and followed by internal trapping of the aneurysm (two cases). In the remaining case in which a fetal-type posterior communicating artery was present, internal trapping was performed following successful balloon test occlusion (BTO). Overall, there was no sign of infarction in the PICA territory, despite complete occlusion of aneurysms involving the PICA. There was no recurrent bleeding or ischemic symptoms during the follow-up periods. The overall treatment-related morbidity rate for the VA dissecting aneurysms involving the PICA was 16.7%.
Conclusions. Dissecting VA aneurysms that do not involve the PICA can be safely treated by internal trapping. For those lesions that do involve the PICA, a decision-making algorithm is advocated to maximize the efficacy of the treatment as well as to minimize the risks of treatment-related morbidity based on BTO.
Koji Iihara, Kenichi Murao, Nobuyuki Sakai, Atsushi Shindo, Hideki Sakai, Toshio Higashi, Shuji Kogure, Jun C. Takahashi, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Toshihiro Ishibashi and Izumi Nagata
Object. To elucidate an optimal management strategy for unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms, the authors retrospectively reviewed their experience in the treatment of 100 patients who underwent 112 procedures for 111 paraclinoid aneurysms performed using direct surgery and/or endovascular treatment.
Methods. Between 1997 and 2002, 111 unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms categorized according to a modified al-Rodhan classification (Group Ia, 30 anterior wall lesions; Group Ib, 25 ventral paraclinoid lesions; Group II, 18 true ophthalmic artery lesions; Group III, 37 carotid cave lesions; and Group IV, one transitional lesion) were treated by direct surgery (35 lesions) and/or endovascular treatment (77 lesions) (one aneurysm was treated by both procedures). In lesions in Groups Ia, Ib, II, and III that were treated by endovascular treatment, complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 50, 65, 50, and 78%, respectively, and the combined transient and permanent morbidity rates due to cerebral embolic events were 20, 25, 20, and 13.9%, respectively. Overall, the transient morbidity rate after endovascular treatment was 14.3% and the permanent morbidity rate was 6.5%. Notably, permanent visual deficits caused by retinal embolism occurred after endovascular treatment in two patients with Group II aneurysms. Direct surgery was mainly performed in Groups Ia (20 lesions), Ib (five lesions), and II (eight lesions), with complete neck clip occlusion achieved in 80, 80, and 71.4%, respectively; the transient and permanent morbidity rates associated with aneurysms treated by surgery were 8.6 and 2.9%, respectively.
Conclusions. Endovascular therapy for superiorly projecting paraclinoid aneurysms (Groups Ia and II) is associated with lower rates of complete obliteration than direct surgery, and with rates of cerebral embolic events comparable to those of endovascular treatment in the other groups. Furthermore, endovascular treatment for Group II aneurysms entails additional risks of retinal embolism. Therefore, direct surgery is recommended for the treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms projecting superiorly. For other groups, especially for Group III, endovascular treatment is the acceptable first line of therapy.