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Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Justin K. Scheer, Jamie S. Terran, Justin S. Smith, D. Kojo Hamilton, Han Jo Kim, Greg M. Mundis Jr., Robert A. Hart, Ian M. McCarthy, Eric Klineberg, Virginie Lafage, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and International Spine Study Group

A dult spinal deformity has been studied extensively in the literature with a majority of publications focusing on thoracolumbar deformity and its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 Among patients with thoracolumbar deformities, positive sagittal alignment has been associated with pain and disability. 2 , 7 , 11 , 13 , 16 Few studies have correlated validated health measures and positive cervical sagittal alignment. 16 , 17 Tang et al. 16 demonstrated that a C2–7 sagittal vertical axis

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Renaud Lafage, Ibrahim Obeid, Barthelemy Liabaud, Shay Bess, Douglas Burton, Justin S. Smith, Cyrus Jalai, Richard Hostin, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher Ames, Han Jo Kim, Eric Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and the International Spine Study Group

levels above UIV. Statistical Analysis The collected demographic, surgical, and radiographic data were described and analyzed at baseline and immediate postoperative follow-up. Changes in radiographic alignment were also investigated, including a preoperative to postoperative analysis of sagittal alignment and the rate of radiographic PJK. Patients were stratified into 5 groups based on the preoperative to postoperative degree of change in LL: decrease in LL (kyphotic change > 5°), stable (change between −5° and 5°), 5°–15° increase (lordotic change of 5°–15°), 15

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Blake N. Staub, Renaud Lafage, Han Jo Kim, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Douglas Burton, Lawrence Lenke, Munish C. Gupta, Christopher Ames, Eric Klineberg, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and the International Spine Study Group

M uch has been written on the relationship between patient-reported outcomes and sagittal alignment in thoracolumbar deformities. 5–8 , 12 , 17 , 18 , 23 Although simple equations were initially used to identify thoracolumbar deformities, more recently, patient-specific formulas have been developed to more specifically quantify each deformity. 10 , 22 However, cervical spine studies have yet to define a fundamental equation, let alone patient-specific descriptors, that both elucidate a deformity and suggest a nidus for correction. The cervical sagittal

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Justin K. Scheer, Peter G. Passias, Alexandra M. Sorocean, Anthony J. Boniello, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Munish Gupta, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

, all of the demographic differences were similar between patients with and without preoperative cervical malalignment, with the exception of CK. Patients with CK were significantly younger by an average of 10 years. This result is in line with both Park et al. 20 and Smith et al. 25 The study by Park and colleagues assessed the effect of age on cervical sagittal alignment in 100 asymptomatic subjects and found that the C2–7 lordosis increased with age. Smith et al. also found that patients with CK were significantly younger than those without CK in a large

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Christopher P. Ames, Justin S. Smith, Robert Eastlack, Donald J. Blaskiewicz, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Frank Schwab, Shay Bess, Han Jo Kim, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Eric Klineberg, Munish Gupta, Michael O’Brien, Richard Hostin, Justin K. Scheer, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Robert Hart, Todd J. Albert, K. Daniel Riew, Michael G. Fehlings, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group

posterosuperior corner of the C-7 vertebral body. The horizontal line with an arrow represents the C2–7 SVA. Given the significant impact of sagittal alignment on HRQOL among patients with thoracolumbar spinal deformities, and the studies of Tang et al. 54 and Smith et al. 45 demonstrating correlations between cervical sagittal alignment and multiple measures of HRQOL, the C2–7 SVA was selected as a modifier for the CSD classification. Based on regression analysis from Tang et al., a C2–7 SVA threshold of 4 cm was found to correlate with moderate disability based on the

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Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Justin K. Scheer, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Eric Klineberg, Munish Gupta, Richard Hostin, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Han Jo Kim, Vedat Deviren, Alex Soroceanu, Robert A. Hart, Douglas C. Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

Slover J , Abdu WA , Hanscom B , Weinstein JN : The impact of comorbidities on the change in short-form 36 and Oswes-try scores following lumbar spine surgery . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31 : 1974 – 1980 , 2006 41 Smith JS , Bess S , Shaffrey CI , Burton DC , Hart RA , Hostin R , : Dynamic changes of the pelvis and spine are key to predicting postoperative sagittal alignment after pedicle subtraction osteotomy: a critical analysis of preoperative planning techniques . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 37 : 845 – 853 , 2012 42 Smith JS , Fu

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Justin S. Smith, Ellen Shaffrey, Eric Klineberg, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Frank J. Schwab, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Justin K. Scheer, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Kai-Ming G. Fu, Munish C. Gupta, Richard Hostin, Vedat Deviren, Khaled Kebaish, Robert Hart, Douglas C. Burton, Breton Line, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

fracture, the retrospective study suggested that residual postoperative sagittal malalignment and greater BMI may be associated with greater risk of rod fracture. The present prospective study confirms the added risk of rod fracture with greater BMI and confirms that sagittal spinopelvic alignment may also be a risk factor, but instead of postoperative residual sagittal malalignment, the present study suggests that it is the magnitude of sagittal alignment correction that may be a more important factor. The findings of the present study demonstrate a markedly higher

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Dominic Maggio, Tamir T. Ailon, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Regis W. Haid Jr., Themistocles Protopsaltis, Eric Klineberg, Justin K. Scheer, Shay Bess, Paul M. Arnold, Jens Chapman, Michael G. Fehlings, Christopher Ames, AOSpine North America and International Spine Study Group

S urgical planning to address seemingly isolated lumbar pathology may lead to suboptimal results if a patient’s global spinal alignment is not taken into account. In recent years, there has been a greater appreciation of the interaction between different regions of the spine and the pelvis in producing harmonious global alignment. Malalignment in 1 region may result in compensatory changes in an adjacent (or even distant) region. This is particularly true in the setting of deformity surgery wherein correction of sagittal alignment can result in reciprocal

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Taemin Oh, Justin K. Scheer, Robert Eastlack, Justin S. Smith, Virginie Lafage, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Eric Klineberg, Peter G. Passias, Vedat Deviren, Richard Hostin, Munish Gupta, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Christopher P. Ames

A dult spinal deformity (ASD) is a pathological condition defined as spinal malalignment in the axial, coronal, or sagittal plane and is derivative of congenital, iatrogenic, degenerative, or idiopathic etiology. 30 The restoration of sagittal alignment, as established by the sagittal vertical axis (SVA; target < 5 cm) and pelvic tilt (PT; target < 20°) on sagittal radiography, is important in surgical deformity correction. 6 , 21 , 22 Although coronal plane correction also has clinical relevance, sagittal corrections appear to have greater importance, 5

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Christopher P. Ames, Justin S. Smith, Justin K. Scheer, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Virginie Lafage, Vedat Deviren, Bertrand Moal, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Eric Klineberg, Douglas C. Burton, Robert Hart, Shay Bess, Frank J. Schwab and the International Spine Study Group

, Bess S , Hart RA , : The impact of standing regional cervical sagittal alignment on outcomes in posterior cervical fusion surgery . Neurosurgery 71 : 662 – 669 , 2012 59 Tokala DP , Lam KS , Freeman BJ , Webb JK : C7 decancellisation closing wedge osteotomy for the correction of fixed cervico-thoracic kyphosis . Eur Spine J 16 : 1471 – 1478 , 2007 60 Uchida K , Nakajima H , Sato R , Yayama T , Mwaka ES , Kobayashi S , : Cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated with kyphosis or sagittal sigmoid alignment: outcome