Embolization is the most common treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). A retrospective, multicenter observational study was conducted in Japan to clarify the nature, frequency, and risk factors for complications of dAVF embolization.
Patient data were derived from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3 (JR-NET3). A total of 40,169 procedures were registered in JR-NET3, including 2121 procedures (5.28%) in which dAVFs were treated with embolization. After data extraction, the authors analyzed complication details and risk factors in 1940 procedures performed in 1458 patients with cranial dAVFs treated with successful or attempted embolization.
Transarterial embolization (TAE) alone was performed in 858 cases (44%), and transvenous embolization (TVE) alone was performed in 910 cases (47%). Both TAE and TVE were performed in one session in 172 cases (9%). Complications occurred in 149 cases (7.7%). Thirty-day morbidity and mortality occurred in 55 cases (2.8%) and 16 cases (0.8%), respectively. Non–sinus-type locations, radical embolization as the strategy, procedure done at a hospital that performed dAVF embolization in fewer than 10 cases during the study period, and emergency procedures were independent risk factors for overall complications.
Complication rates of dAVF embolization in Japan were acceptable. For better results, the risk factors identified in this study should be considered in treatment decisions.