Identifying a source of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in patients with negative results on cranial angiographic imaging can be a diagnostic challenge. The authors present the case of a 14-month-old girl who presented with lethargy and spontaneous SAH and IVH, and later became acutely paraplegic. Except for the SAH and IVH, findings on neuroimages of the brain were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary thoracolumbar spinal cord hemorrhage that was found to be associated with arterialized veins intraoperatively. Catheter-based diagnostic angiography identified a spinal perimedullary macroarteriovenous fistula (macro-AVF) that was completely embolized with Onyx, negating the need for further surgical intervention. The authors believe this to be the first reported case of a thoracolumbar perimedullary macro-AVF presenting with SAH and IVH. In addition, descriptions of Onyx embolization of a spinal AVF in the literature are rare, especially in pediatric patients.
Tyler J. Kenning, Eric M. Deshaies, Matthew A. Adamo, John B. Waldman and Alan S. Boulos
Tyler J. Kenning, M. Reid Gooch, Ravi H. Gandhi, M. Parvez Shaikh, Alan S. Boulos and John W. German
Recent randomized trials have demonstrated a positive role (improved survival) in patients treated with cranial decompression for malignant cerebral infarction. However, many variables regarding operative decompression in this setting remain to be determined. Hinge craniotomy is an alternative to decompressive craniectomy, but its role in space-occupying cerebral infarctions has not been delineated. The objective of this study was to compare the authors' experiences with these 2 procedures in the management of space-occupying cerebral infarctions to determine the efficacy of each.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of 28 cases involving patients who underwent cranial decompression (hinge craniotomy in 9 cases, decompressive craniectomy in 19) for treatment of malignant intracranial hypertension after ischemic cerebral infarction.
No significant differences were identified in baseline demographics, neurological examination, or Rotterdam score between the hinge craniotomy and decompressive craniectomy groups. Both treatments resulted in adequate control of intracranial pressure (ICP). The need for reoperation for persistent intracranial hypertension and duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay were similar. Hospital survival was significantly higher in the decompressive craniectomy group (89% vs 56%), whereas long-term functional outcome was better in the hinge craniotomy group. Cranial defect size was comparable in the 2 groups. Postoperative imaging revealed a higher rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage, contusion/hematoma progression, and subdural effusions/hygromas after decompressive craniectomy. The requirement for cranial revision in survivors was higher for patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (100%) than those undergoing hinge craniotomy (20%).
Hinge craniotomy appears to be at least as good as decompressive craniectomy in providing postoperative ICP control at a similar therapeutic index. Although the in-hospital mortality was higher in patients treated with hinge craniotomy, that procedure resulted in superior long-term functional outcomes and may help limit postoperative complications.