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  • Author or Editor: Jun-ichiro Hamada x
  • By Author: Kazekawa, Kiyoshi x
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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Yutaka Kai, Motohiro Morioka, Kiyoshi Kazekawa, Yasuji Ishimaru, Hiroo Iwata and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The authors report their clinical experience with their new nonadhesive liquid embolic agent, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL)/ethanol mixture, to treat arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. Between June 1995 and April 2001, 57 patients with confirmed AVMs underwent embolization of their lesions with the EVAL/ethanol mixture. In 87 procedures consisting of one to three stages, the authors embolized 185 feeding arteries to occlude as much of the AVM as possible. Repeated injections under fluoroscopic control could be performed smoothly without encountering cementing of the catheter to the vessel wall. Among the 87 embolizations undertaken in 57 patients, seven procedures (8%) in six patients produced new postembolization symptoms. Resolution of these symptoms occurred within hours or days after four of the seven procedures; permanent neurological deficits remained after the other three procedures (3.4%). Of the 57 patients, three underwent postembolization radiosurgery, and 54 underwent radical treatment with microsurgical extirpation. Histopathological examination of the 54 specimens disclosed mild inflammation within the embolized lumen without inflammatory reactions in the media or adventitia. Follow-up angiograms obtained 3 years after radiosurgery was administered showed that in all three patients treated in this fashion the nidus had completely disappeared.

Conclusions. The EVAL/ethanol mixture is handled easily and appears to be an effective and safe agent for preoperative embolization of AVMs.

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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Yutaka Kai, Motohiro Morioka, Kiyoshi Kazekawa, Yasuji Ishimaru, Hiroo Iwata and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The authors have developed a mixture of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) and iopamidol, which is dissolved in ethanol, as an alternative solvent to provide a safe means of embolizing arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. A two-stage delivery technique is required to prevent premature precipitation in the catheter when using this material: the catheter is first infused with 30% ethanol and this is followed by the delivery of the EVAL—ethanol mixture. Acute angiographic changes were analyzed after superselective delivery of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 30% ethanol into the renal artery of rabbits. Histological changes following the embolization of the renal artery achieved using the EVAL—ethanol mixture were recorded at 1 hour and at 2 and 16 weeks after the procedure. Although DMSO always produced severe, rapidly progressive vasospasm in the renal artery during a 1- to 60-minute postinfusion, 30% ethanol did not. Microscopically, the lumens of embolized vessels examined 1 hour after embolization with EVAL—ethanol appeared to be filled with EVAL sponges, leaving almost no open spaces. The space between the EVAL sponges and the inner surface of the vessels was filled with fresh thrombus. In the vessel walls of specimens examined 2 weeks after embolization there was no or a slight inflammatory reaction. Scattered in the EVAL sponges were almost equal numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes and mononuclear cells, indicative of a mild inflammatory response. In specimens examined 16 weeks postembolization, the changes noted at 2 weeks were intensified. There was no definite histopathological evidence of mural hemorrhage, perivascular extravasation of the mixture, or perivascular hemorrhage in any specimen that was examined.

Conclusions. Although the degree of permanence of this embolization material is yet unknown, the mixture was easy to handle, and appeared safe and effective for AVM embolization. Its nonadhesive characteristic and its ability to be infused by repeated injections make it an attractive alternative to currently available materials. The good results obtained in this study led us to undertake a clinical trial, the results of which are contained in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery.