Soichi Oya, Kensuke Kawai, Hirofumi Nakatomi and Nobuhito Saito
Techniques for the surgical treatment of meningioma have undergone many improvements since Simpson established the neurosurgical dogma for meningioma surgery in his seminal paper published in 1957. This study aims to assess the clinical significance and limitations of the Simpson grading system in relation to modern surgery for WHO Grade I benign meningiomas and to explore the potential of the cell proliferation index to complement the limitations in predicting their recurrence.
The surgical records of patients who underwent resection of intracranial meningiomas at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 1995 and August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The authors investigated the relationships between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and Simpson grade or MIB-1 labeling index value.
A total of 240 patients harboring 248 benign meningiomas were included in this study. Simpson Grade IV resection was associated with a significantly shorter RFS than Simpson Grade I, II, or III resection (p < 0.001), while no statistically significant difference was noted in RFS between Simpson Grades I, II, and III. Among meningiomas treated by Simpson Grade II and III resections, however, multivariate analysis revealed that an MIB-1 index of 3% or higher was associated with a significantly shorter time to recurrence.
The clinical significance of the different management strategies related to Simpson Grade I–III resection may have been diluted in the modern surgical era. The MIB-1 index can differentiate tumors with a high risk of recurrence, which could be beneficial for planning tailored optimal follow-up strategies. The results of this study appear to provide a significant backing for the recent shift in meningioma surgery from attempting aggressive resection to valuing the quality of the patient's life.
Takahiro Ota, Kensuke Kawai, Kyousuke Kamada, Taichi Kin and Nobuhito Saito
Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) has been regarded as having limited significance for the preservation of visual function during neurosurgical procedures, mainly due to its poor spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The authors evaluated the usefulness of cortically recorded VEPs, instead of the usual scalp VEPs, as intraoperative monitoring focusing on the posterior visual pathway.
In 17 consecutive patients who underwent microsurgical procedures for lesions near the posterior visual pathway, cortical responses were recorded using 1-Hz flashing light-emitting diodes and subdural strip electrodes after induction of general anesthesia with sevoflurane or propofol. The detectability and waveform of the initial response, stability, and changes during microsurgical manipulations were analyzed in association with the position of electrodes and postoperative changes in visual function.
Initial VEPs were detected in 82% of all patients. The VEPs were detected in 94% of patients without total hemianopia in whom electrodes were placed sufficiently near the occipital pole; in these cases the recordings were not significantly affected by anesthesia. The detectability rates of the negative peak before 100 msec (N1), positive peak ~ 100 msec (P100), and negative peak after 100 msec (N2) were 36, 50, and 100%, respectively. The mean latencies and amplitudes of N1, P100, and N2 were 90.0 ± 15.9 msec and 61.0 ± 64.0 μV, 103.9 ± 13.5 msec and 34.3 ± 38.6 μV, and 125.7 ± 12.2 msec and 44.9 ± 48.9 μV, respectively, showing great variability. In 11 patients, the initial waveforms of VEP remained stable during microsurgical procedures, and the visual status did not change postoperatively, while it disappeared in 2 patients who presented with postoperative hemianopia.
Direct recording from the visual cortices under general anesthesia achieved satisfactory detectability of the visual response to a light-emitting diode flashing light. Although the initial waveforms varied greatly among patients, they were stable during microsurgical procedures, and the changes were consistent with postoperative visual function. Intraoperative cortical VEP monitoring is a potentially useful procedure to monitor the functional integrity of the posterior visual pathway.
Toshikazu Kimura, Chikayuki Ochiai, Kensuke Kawai, Akio Morita and Nobuhito Saito
To investigate the risk of bleeding from unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCAs), previous studies have used Kaplan-Meier analyses without treating the definitive treatment as a competing risk event, which may underestimate the rupture rate. The authors analyzed the survival of patients with UCAs alongside the occurrence of aneurysm bleeding and its competing risk events.
A retrospective analysis was conducted on 722 patients diagnosed with UCAs in the period from 2000 to 2009 using an institution’s electronic medical records and telephone interviews. The cumulative incidence of aneurysm rupture was examined, and factors contributing to rupture were assessed using regression analyses.
By 2014, 19 patients had experienced aneurysm rupture, with an overall rupture rate of 0.57% per year over 3320.8 person-years. However, cumulative incidence analysis indicated that 1.3% of all patients had a rupture within 2 years after aneurysm identification, and 38.4% of the patients underwent definitive treatment in the same period. Among the patients who experienced rupture, regression analysis revealed that an aneurysm size greater than 5 mm, a location in the anterior or posterior communicating arteries, and an irregular shape contributed to aneurysm rupture, with HRs of 4.4 (95% CI 1.2–15.7), 3.5 (95% CI 1.4–8.7), and 2.1 (95% CI 0.7–6.0), respectively.
Rupture rate analyses using the person-year or standard Kaplan-Meier method are not as informative without consideration of the competing risks. The incidence of aneurysm rupture should be presented clearly with those of competing risks.
Kenichi Usami, Kensuke Kawai, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Hiroki Kurita, Ichiro Suzuki and Nobuhito Saito
Despite the controversy over the clinical significance of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), the modality has attracted attention because it is less invasive than resection. The authors report long-term outcomes for 7 patients, focusing in particular on the long-term complications.
Between 1996 and 1999, 7 patients with MTLE underwent GKS. The 50% marginal dose covering the medial temporal structures was 18 Gy in 2 patients and 25 Gy in the remaining 5 patients.
High-dose treatment abolished the seizures in 2 patients and significantly reduced them in 2 others. One patient in this group was lost to follow-up. However, 2 patients presented with symptomatic radiation necrosis (SRN) necessitating resection after 5 and 10 years. One patient who did not need necrotomy continued to show radiation necrosis on MRI after 10 years. One patient died of drowning while swimming in the sea 1 year after GKS, before seizures had disappeared completely.
High-dose treatment resulted in sufficient seizure control but carried a significant risk of SRN after several years. Excessive target volume was considered as a reason for delayed necrosis. Drawbacks such as a delay in seizure control and the risk of SRN should be considered when the clinical significance of this treatment is evaluated.
Kyousuke Kamada, Tomoki Todo, Takahiro Ota, Kenji Ino, Yoshitaka Masutani, Shigeki Aoki, Fumiya Takeuchi, Kensuke Kawai and Nobuhito Saito
To validate the corticospinal tract (CST) illustrated by diffusion tensor imaging, the authors used tractography-integrated neuronavigation and direct fiber stimulation with monopolar electric currents.
Forty patients with brain lesions adjacent to the CST were studied. During the operation, the motor responses (motor evoked potential [MEP]) elicited at the hand by the cortical stimulation to the hand motor area were continuously monitored, maintaining the consistent stimulus intensity (mean 15.1 ± 2.21 mA). During lesion resection, direct fiber stimulation was applied to elicit MEP (referred to as fiber MEP) to identify the CST functionally. The threshold intensity for the fiber MEP was determined by searching for the best stimulus point and changing the stimulus intensity. The minimum distance between the resection border and illustrated CST was measured on postoperative isotropic images.
Direct fiber stimulation demonstrated that tractography accurately reflected anatomical CST functioning. There were strong correlations between stimulus intensity for the fiber MEP and the distance between the CST and the stimulus points. The results indicate that the minimum stimulus intensity of 20, 15, 10, and 5 mA had stimulus points ~ 16, 13.2, 9.6, and 4.8 mm from the CST, respectively. The convergent calculation formulated 1.8 mA as the electrical threshold of the CST for the fiber MEP, which was much smaller than that of the hand motor area.
The investigators found that diffusion tensor imaging–based tractography is a reliable way to map the white matter connections in the entire brain in clinical and basic neuroscience applications. By combining these techniques, investigating the cortical-subcortical connections in the human CNS could contribute to elucidating the neural networks of the human brain and shed light on higher brain functions.
Yuta Fukushima, Soichi Oya, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Junji Shibahara, Shunya Hanakita, Shota Tanaka, Masahiro Shin, Kensuke Kawai, Masashi Fukayama and Nobuhito Saito
Meningiomas treated by subtotal or partial resection are associated with significantly shorter recurrence-free survival than those treated by gross-total resection. The Simpson grading system classifies incomplete resections into a single category, namely Simpson Grade IV, with wide variations in the volume and location of residual tumors, making it complicated to evaluate the achievement of surgical goals and predict the prognosis of these tumors. Authors of the present study investigated the factors related to necessity of retreatment and tried to identify any surgical nuances achievable with the aid of modern neurosurgical techniques for meningiomas treated using Simpson Grade IV resection.
This retrospective analysis included patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas treated using Simpson Grade IV resection as the initial therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 1995 and April 2010. Retreatment was defined as reresection or stereotactic radiosurgery due to postoperative tumor growth.
A total of 38 patients were included in this study. Regrowth of residual tumor was observed in 22 patients with a mean follow-up period of 6.1 years. Retreatment was performed for 20 of these 22 tumors with regrowth. Risk factors related to significantly shorter retreatment-free survival were age younger than 50 years (p = 0.006), postresection tumor volume of 4 cm3 or more (p = 0.016), no dural detachment (p = 0.001), and skull base location (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis revealed that no dural detachment (hazard ratio [HR] 6.42, 95% CI 1.41–45.0; p = 0.02) and skull base location (HR 11.6, 95% CI 2.18–218; p = 0.002) were independent risk factors for the necessity of early retreatment, whereas postresection tumor volume of 4 cm3 or more was not a statistically significant risk factor.
Compared with Simpson Grade I, II, and III resections, Simpson Grade IV resection includes highly heterogeneous tumors in terms of resection rate and location of the residual mass. Despite the difficulty in analyzing such diverse data, these results draw attention to the favorable effect of dural detachment (instead of maximizing the resection rate) on long-term tumor control. Surgical strategy with an emphasis on detaching the tumor from the affected dura might be another important option in resection of high-risk meningiomas not amenable to gross-total resection.