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  • Author or Editor: Kostas N. Fountas x
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Ioannis Karampelas, Angel N. Boev III, Kostas N. Fountas and Joe Sam Robinson Jr.

The authors offer a brief overview of early theories and treatments of sciatica. Tracing medical traditions through early Greek, Roman, and Eastern epochs, the authors demonstrate the slow sequential steps that were required to delineate this disease as a uniquely human affliction.

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Kostas N. Fountas, Robert S. Donner, Leonidas G. Nikolakakos, Carlos H. Feltes, Ioannis Karampelas and Joe Sam Robinson Jr.

✓ The authors report a unique case of diffuse spinal metastatic disease due to a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in an adult. In additon to its overall rarity, peculiar characteristics of the particular tumor included its site of origin, demonstrated radiologically as the lumbar paravertebral musculature (psoas muscle) and the transcanalicular spread into the vertebral canal, resulting in thecal compression at multiple levels. The salient clinicopathological characteristics of RMS, as they related particularly to the spine, are subsequently discussed and a short review of the major therapeutic modalities for these tumors is offered.

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Angel N. Boev, Kostas N. Fountas, Ioannis Karampelas, Christine Boev, Theofilos G. Machinis, Carlos Feltes, Ike Okosun, Vassilios Dimopoulos and Christopher Troup


The authors describe the prospective use of a new hand-held point-and-shoot pupillometer (NeurOptics) to assess pupil function quantitatively.


Repetitive measurements were made in 90 pediatric participants ranging in age from 1 to 18 years, providing a total of 100 measurements under ambient light conditions. The participants consisted of 45 patients without known intracranial or ophthalmological pathological conditions as well as 45 volunteers in the outpatient setting. Quantitative pupil measurements were reliably replicated in the study participants. The mean resting pupil aperture was 4.11 mm and the minimal diameter after stimulation was 2.65 mm, resulting in a 36% change in pupil size. The mean constriction velocity was 2.34 mm/second, with a mean dilation velocity of 2.2 mm/second.


Pupil symmetry was impressive in the entire cohort.