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Hidetoshi Nojiri, Kei Miyagawa, Hiroto Yamaguchi, Masato Koike, Yoshiyuki Iwase, Takatoshi Okuda and Kazuo Kaneko

determine whether the position and displacement of organs on the approach path could be observed in real time, and we examined the possibility of using this technique to improve safety by preventing complications. Methods The study cohort comprised 100 patients who underwent lateral lumbar spine surgery at our institution, 92 via a left-sided approach. During surgery for lumbar interbody fusion or vertebral body replacement, a HI VISION Avius ultrasound device (Hitachi) and gas-sterilized EUP-V53W transvaginal probe (Hitachi) were used. An echo monitor was positioned at