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Tanmoy K. Maiti, Shyamal C. Bir, Devi Prasad Patra, Piyush Kalakoti, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Spinal meningiomas are benign tumors with a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features at presentation. The authors analyzed multiple clinicoradiological factors to predict recurrence and functional outcome in a cohort with a mean follow-up of more than 4 years. The authors also discuss the results of clinical studies regarding spinal meningiomas in the last 15 years.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological details of patients who underwent surgery for spinal tumors between 2001 and 2015 that were histopathologically confirmed as meningiomas. Demographic parameters, such as age, sex, race, and association with neurofibromatosis Type 2, were considered. Radiological parameters, such as tumor size, signal changes of spinal cord, spinal level, number of levels, location of tumor attachment, shape of tumor, and presence of dural tail/calcification, were noted. These factors were analyzed to predict recurrence and functional outcome. Furthermore, a pooled analysis was performed from 13 reports of spinal meningiomas in the last 15 years.

RESULTS

A total of 38 patients were included in this study. Male sex and tumors with radiological evidence of a dural tail were associated with an increased risk of recurrence at a mean follow-up of 51.2 months. Ventral or ventrolateral location, large tumors, T2 cord signal changes, and poor preoperative functional status were associated with poor functional outcome at 1-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

Spine surgeons must be aware of the natural history and risk factors of spinal meningiomas to establish a prognosis for their patients.

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Marc Manix, Piyush Kalakoti, Miriam Henry, Jai Thakur, Richard Menger, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative condition with a rapid disease course and a mortality rate of 100%. Several forms of the disease have been described, and the most common is the sporadic type. The most challenging aspect of this disease is its diagnosis—the gold standard for definitive diagnosis is considered to be histopatho-logical confirmation—but newer tests are providing means for an antemortem diagnosis in ways less invasive than brain biopsy. Imaging studies, electroencephalography, and biomarkers are used in conjunction with the clinical picture to try to make the diagnosis of CJD without brain tissue samples, and all of these are reviewed in this article. The current diagnostic criteria are limited; test sensitivity and specificity varies with the genetics of the disease as well as the clinical stage. Physicians may be unsure of all diagnostic testing available, and may order outdated tests or prematurely request a brain biopsy when the diagnostic workup is incomplete. The authors review CJD, discuss the role of brain biopsy in this patient population, provide a diagnostic pathway for the patient presenting with rapidly progressive dementia, and propose newer diagnostic criteria.

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Tanmoy Kumar Maiti, Subhas Konar, Shyamal Bir, Piyush Kalakoti, Papireddy Bollam and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

The difference in course and outcome of several neurodegenerative conditions and traumatic injuries of the nervous system points toward a possible role of genetic and environmental factors as prognostic markers. Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E), a key player in lipid metabolism, is recognized as one of the most powerful genetic risk factors for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, the current understanding of APOE polymorphism in various neurological disorders is discussed.

METHODS

The English literature was searched for various studies describing the role of APOE polymorphism as a prognostic marker in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injury. The wide ethnic distribution of APOE polymorphism was discussed, and the recent meta-analyses of role of APOE polymorphism in multiple diseases were analyzed and summarized in tabular form.

RESULTS

Results from the review of literature revealed that the distribution of APOE is varied in different ethnic populations. APOE polymorphism plays a significant role in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease. APOE ε4 is considered a marker for poor prognosis in various diseases, but APOE ε2 rather than APOE ε4 has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related bleeding and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. The role of APOE polymorphism in various neurological diseases has not been conclusively elucidated.

CONCLUSIONS

Apo-E is a biomarker for various neurological and systemic diseases. Therefore, while analyzing the role of APOE polymorphism in neurological diseases, the interpretation should be done after adjusting all the confounding factors. A continuous quest to look for associations with various neurological diseases and wide knowledge of available literature are required to improve the understanding of the role of APOE polymorphism in these conditions and identify potential therapeutic targets.

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Sunil Kukreja, Piyush Kalakoti, Richard Murray, Menarvia Nixon, Symeon Missios, Bharat Guthikonda and Anil Nanda

OBJECT

Incidence of C-2 fracture is increasing in elderly patients. Patient age also influences decision making in the management of these fractures. There are very limited data on the national trends of incidence, treatment interventions, and resource utilization in patients in different age groups with isolated C-2 fractures. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, treatment, complications, length of stay, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fracture in patients in 3 different age groups by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. methods The data were obtained from NIS from 2002 to 2011. Data on patients with closed fractures of C-2 without spinal cord injury were extracted using ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 805.02. Patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified by excluding patients with other associated injuries. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: < 65 years, 65–80 years, and > 80 years. Incidence, treatment characteristics, inpatient/postoperative complications, and hospital charges (mean and total annual charges) were compared between the 3 age groups.

RESULTS

A total of 10,336 patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified. The majority of the patients were in the very elderly age group (> 80 years; 42.3%) followed by 29.7% in the 65- to 80-year age group and 28% in < 65-year age group. From 2002 to 2011, the incidence of hospitalization significantly increased in the 65- to 80-year and > 80-year age groups (p < 0.001). However, the incidence did not change substantially in the < 65-year age group (p = 0.287). Overall, 21% of the patients were treated surgically, and 12.2% of the patients underwent nonoperative interventions (halo and spinal traction). The rate of nonoperative interventions significantly decreased over time in all age groups (p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment given, patients in older age groups had a greater risk of inpatient/postoperative complications, nonroutine discharges, and longer hospitalization. The mean hospital charges were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of hospitalization for isolated C-2 fractures is progressively increasing in older age groups. Simultaneously, there has been a steadily decreasing trend in the preference for nonoperative interventions. Due to more complicated hospital stay, longer hospitalizations, and higher rates of nonroutine discharges, the patients in older age groups seem to have a higher propensity for greater health care resource utilization.

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Devi Prasad Patra, Shyamal C. Bir, Tanmoy K. Maiti, Piyush Kalakoti, Hugo Cuellar, Bharat Guthikonda, Hai Sun, Christina Notarianni and Anil Nanda

OBJECTIVE

Despite significant advances in the medical field and shunt technology, shunt malfunction remains a nightmare of pediatric neurosurgeons. In this setting, the ability to preoperatively predict the probability of shunt malfunction is quite compelling. The authors have compared the preoperative radiological findings in obstructive hydrocephalus and the subsequent clinical course of the patient to determine any association with overall shunt outcome.

METHODS

This retrospective study included all pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for obstructive hydrocephalus. Linear measurements were taken from pre- and postoperative CT or MRI studies to calculate different indices and ratios including Evans' index, frontal horn index (FHI), occipital horn index (OHI), frontooccipital horn ratio (FOHR), and frontooccipital horn index ratio (FOIR). Other morphological features such as bi- or triventriculomegaly, right-left ventricular symmetry, and periventricular lucency (PVL) were also noted. The primary clinical outcomes that were reviewed included the need for shunt revision, time interval to first shunt revision, frequency of shunt revisions, and revision-free survival.

RESULTS

A total of 121 patients were eligible for the analysis. Nearly half of the patients (47.9%) required shunt revision. The presence of PVL was associated with lower revision rates than those in others (39.4% vs 58.2%, p = 0.03). None of the preoperative radiological indices or ratios showed any correlation with shunt revision. Nearly half of the patients with shunt revision required early revision (< 90 days of primary surgery). The reduction in the FOHR was high in patients who required early shunt revision (20.16% in patients with early shunt revision vs 6.4% in patients with late shunt revision, p = 0.009). Nearly half of the patients (48.3%) requiring shunt revision ultimately needed more than one revision procedure. Greater occipital horn dilation on preoperative images was associated with a lower frequency of shunt revision, as dictated by a high OHI and a low FOIR in patients with a single shunt revision as compared with those in patients who required multiple shunt revisions (p = 0.029 and 0.009, respectively). The mean follow-up was 49.9 months. Age was a significant factor affecting shunt revision–free survival. Patients younger than 6 months of age had significantly less revision-free survival than the patients older than 6 months (median survival of 10.1 vs 94.1 months, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS

Preoperative radiological linear indices and ratios do not predict the likelihood of subsequent shunt malfunction. However, patients who required early shunt revision tended to have greater reductions in ventricular volumes on postoperative images. Therefore a greater reduction in ventricular volume is not actually desirable, and a ventricular volume high enough to reduce intracranial pressure is instead to be aimed at for long-term shunt compliance.