Object. The aim of this study was to explore whether levels of intercellular adhesion molecule—1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule—1 (VCAM-1) are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Methods. This prospective clinical study focused on 21 patients who had recently suffered an SAH due to aneurysmal rupture and 15 control patients with hydrocephalus who had no other central nervous system disease. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples obtained within the first 3 days and on the 5th and 7th days of SAH were assayed for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Levels of soluble forms of ICAM-1 (p = 0.00001) and VCAM-1 (p = 0.009) in the patients' CSF and those of ICAM-1 (p = 0.00001) and VCAM-1 (p = 0.00001) in their serum were found to be elevated after SAH compared with levels in the CSF and serum of control patients with hydrocephalus. In addition, when the authors compared the increased levels of adhesion molecules in the CSF and serum of patients after SAH, the only statistically insignificant difference that they found was between the levels of VCAM-1 in serum obtained on Days 5 and 7 after SAH (p = 0.27).
Conclusions. Adhesion molecules are a group of macromolecules that may participate in the inflammatory process, a common pathway leading to vasospasm after SAH. Leukocyte adherence to the vascular endothelium, which is induced by adhesion molecules, has been believed to be the initial signal of the development of vasospasm. The authors have demonstrated the synchronized elevation of two adhesion molecules in both CSF and serum following aneurysmal SAH. Blocking of ICAM-1 as well as VCAM-1 by monoclonal antibodies post-SAH may provide a beneficial effect on vasospasm.