Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Roger Härtl x
  • By Author: James, Andrew R. x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Benjamin J. Shin, Andrew R. James, Innocent U. Njoku and Roger Härtl

Object

In this paper the authors' goal was to compare the accuracy of computer-navigated pedicle screw insertion with nonnavigated techniques in the published literature.

Methods

The authors performed a systematic literature review using the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database (PubMed/MEDLINE) using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “Neuronavigation,” “Therapy, computer assisted,” and “Stereotaxic techniques,” and the text word “pedicle.” Included in the meta-analysis were randomized control trials or patient cohort series, all of which compared computer-navigated spine surgery (CNSS) and nonassisted pedicle screw insertions. The primary end point was pedicle perforation, while the secondary end points were operative time, blood loss, and complications.

Results

Twenty studies were included for analysis; of which there were 18 cohort studies and 2 randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2011. Foreign-language papers were translated. The total number of screws included was 8539 (4814 navigated and 3725 nonnavigated). The most common indications for surgery were degenerative disease, spinal deformity, myelopathy, tumor, and trauma. Navigational methods were primarily based on CT imaging. All regions of the spine were represented. The relative risk for pedicle screw perforation was determined to be 0.39 (p < 0.001), favoring navigation. The overall pedicle screw perforation risk for navigation was 6%, while the overall pedicle screw perforation risk was 15% for conventional insertion. No related neurological complications were reported with navigated insertion (4814 screws total); there were 3 neurological complications in the nonnavigated group (3725 screws total). Furthermore, the meta-analysis did not reveal a significant difference in total operative time and estimated blood loss when comparing the 2 modalities.

Conclusions

There is a significantly lower risk of pedicle perforation for navigated screw insertion compared with nonnavigated insertion for all spinal regions.

Full access

Christoph P. Hofstetter, Andrew R. James and Roger Härtl

Object

Paracoccygeal transsacral fixation is a novel percutaneous technique for arthrodesis of L5–S1 and L4–5 (Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion [AxiaLIF]). There are no reports on feasible revision strategies. The goal of this paper is to analyze the surgical details of failed AxiaLIF constructs and to describe revision strategies.

Methods

The medical charts, operative records, and imaging studies of 5 patients with failed multisegment instrumentation using the AxiaLIF device were reviewed.

Results

AxiaLIF constructs were revised in 5 patients with a mean age of 58.4 years. All AxiaLIF devices were part of multisegment fusion constructs for revision surgery and were revised an average of 15 months after implantation. Two AxiaLIF devices were percutaneously retrieved; one because of excessive bone resorption around the AxiaLIF screw, and the other because of chronic hardware infection. In these 2 patients, the anterior column was subsequently stabilized via anterior lumbar interbody fusion. In the other 3 patients, the AxiaLIF device was left in situ. In 2 of these patients the anterior column was stabilized with bilateral L5–S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and in the remaining patient with L4–5 instability the posterior instrumentation only was revised. Revision surgeries were well tolerated. One patient suffered from a wound dehiscence of the back wound.

Conclusions

AxiaLIF devices are safely retrieved using percutaneous technique. Both anterior and posterior revision strategies may be used to achieve anterior column fixation.

Full access

Marjan Alimi, Christoph P. Hofstetter, Guang-Ting Cong, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Andrew R. James, Danika Paulo, Eric Elowitz and Roger Härtl

Object

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (ELIF) is a popular technique for anterior fixation of the thoracolumbar spine. Clinical and radiological outcome studies are required to assess safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe the functional and radiological impact of ELIF in a degenerative disc disease population with a longer follow-up and to assess the durability of this procedure.

Methods

Demographic and perioperative data for all patients who had undergone ELIF for degenerative lumbar disorders between 2007 and 2011 were collected. Trauma and tumor cases were excluded. For radiological outcome, the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and latest follow-up coronal Cobb angle, lumbar sagittal lordosis, bilateral foraminal heights, and disc heights were measured. Pelvic incidence (PI) and PI–lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch were assessed in scoliotic patients. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS), as well as the Macnab criteria.

Results

One hundred forty-five vertebral levels were surgically treated in 90 patients. Pedicle screw and rod constructs and lateral plates were used to stabilize fixation in 77% and 13% of cases, respectively. Ten percent of cases involved stand-alone cages. At an average radiological follow-up of 12.6 months, the coronal Cobb angle was 10.6° compared with 23.8° preoperatively (p < 0.0001). Lumbar sagittal lordosis increased by 5.3° postoperatively (p < 0.0001) and by 2.9° at the latest follow-up (p = 0.014). Foraminal height and disc height increased by 4 mm (p < 0.0001) and 3.3 mm (p < 0.0001), respectively, immediately after surgery and remained significantly improved at the last follow-up. Separate evaluation of scoliotic patients showed no statistically significant improvement in PI and PI-LL mismatch either immediately postoperatively or at the latest follow-up. Clinical evaluation at an average follow-up of 17.6 months revealed an improvement in the ODI and the VAS scores for back, buttock, and leg pain by 21.1% and 3.7, 3.6, and 3.7 points, respectively (p < 0.0001). According to the Macnab criteria, 84.8% of patients had an excellent, good, or fair functional outcome. New postoperative thigh numbness and weakness was detected in 4.4% and 2.2% of the patients, respectively, which resolved within the first 3 months after surgery in all but 1 case.

Conclusions

This study provides what is to the authors' knowledge the most comprehensive set of radiological and clinical outcomes of ELIF in a fairly large population at a midterm follow-up. Extreme lateral interbody fusion showed good clinical outcomes with a low complication rate. The procedure allows for at least midterm clinically effective restoration of disc and foraminal heights. Improvement in coronal deformity and a small but significant increase in sagittal lordosis were observed. Nonetheless, no significant improvement in the PI-LL mismatch was achieved in scoliotic patients.

Full access

Innocent Njoku Jr., Marjan Alimi, Lewis Z. Leng, Benjamin J. Shin, Andrew R. James, Sandeep Bhangoo, Apostolos John Tsiouris and Roger Härtl

Object

Anterior cervical plating decreases the risk of pseudarthrosis following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Dysphagia is a common complication of ACDF, with the anterior plate implicated as a potential contributor. A zero-profile, stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interbody spacer has been postulated to minimize soft-tissue irritation and postoperative dysphagia, but studies are limited. The object of the present study was to determine the clinical and radiological outcomes for patients who underwent ACDF using a zero-profile integrated plate and spacer device, with a focus on the course of postoperative prevertebral soft-tissue thickness and the incidence of dysphagia.

Methods

Using a surgical database, the authors conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who had undergone ACDF between August 2008 and October 2011. All patients received a Zero-P implant (DePuy Synthes Spine). The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for arm and neck pain were documented. Dysphagia was determined using the Bazaz criteria. Prevertebral soft-tissue thickness, spinal alignment, and subsidence were assessed as well.

Results

Twenty-two male and 19 female consecutive patients, with a mean age of 58.4 ± 14.68, underwent ACDF (66 total operated levels) in the defined study period. The mean clinical follow-up in 36 patients was 18.6 ± 9.93 months. Radiological outcome in 37 patients was assessed at a mean follow-up of 9.76 months (range 7.2–19.7 months). There were significant improvements in neck and arm VAS scores and the NDI following surgery. The neck VAS score improved from a median of 6 (range 0–10) to 0 (range 0–8; p < 0.001). The arm VAS score improved from a median of 2 (range 0–10) to 0 (range 0–7; p = 0.006). Immediate postoperative dysphagia was experienced by 58.4% of all patients. Complete resolution was demonstrated in 87.8% of affected patients at the latest follow-up. The overall median Bazaz score decreased from 1 (range 0–3) immediately postoperatively to 0 (range 0–2; p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up. Prevertebral soft-tissue thickness significantly decreased across all levels from a mean of 15.8 ± 4.38 mm to 10.1 ± 2.93 mm. Postoperative lordosis was maintained at the latest follow-up. Mean subsidence from the immediate postoperative to the latest follow-up was 4.1 ± 4.7 mm (p < 0.001). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 92.6% of implants. No correlation was found between prevertebral soft-tissue thickness and Bazaz dysphagia score.

Conclusions

A zero-profile integrated plate and spacer device for ACDF surgery produces clinical and radiological outcomes that are comparable to those for nonintegrated plate and spacer constructs. Chronic dysphagia rates are comparable to or better than those for previously published case series.

Full access

Peter Grunert, Harry H. Gebhard, Robby D. Bowles, Andrew R. James, Hollis G. Potter, Michael Macielak, Katherine D. Hudson, Marjan Alimi, Douglas J. Ballon, Eric Aronowitz, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Lawrence J. Bonassar and Roger Härtl

Object

Tissue-engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs) represent a new experimental approach for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Compared with mechanical implants, TE-IVDs may better mimic the properties of native discs. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the outcome of TE-IVDs implanted into the rat-tail spine using radiological parameters and histology.

Methods

Tissue-engineered intervertebral discs consist of a distinct nucleus pulposus (NP) and anulus fibrosus (AF) that are engineered in vitro from sheep IVD chondrocytes. In 10 athymic rats a discectomy in the caudal spine was performed. The discs were replaced with TE-IVDs. Animals were kept alive for 8 months and were killed for histological evaluation. At 1, 5, and 8 months, MR images were obtained; T1-weighted sequences were used for disc height measurements, and T2-weighted sequences were used for morphological analysis. Quantitative T2 relaxation time analysis was used to assess the water content and T1ρ-relaxation time to assess the proteoglycan content of TE-IVDs.

Results

Disc height of the transplanted segments remained constant between 68% and 74% of healthy discs. Examination of TE-IVDs on MR images revealed morphology similar to that of native discs. T2-relaxation time did not differ between implanted and healthy discs, indicating similar water content of the NP tissue. The size of the NP decreased in TE-IVDs. Proteoglycan content in the NP was lower than it was in control discs. Ossification of the implanted segment was not observed. Histological examination revealed an AF consisting of an organized parallel-aligned fiber structure. The NP matrix appeared amorphous and contained cells that resembled chondrocytes.

Conclusions

The TE-IVDs remained viable over 8 months in vivo and maintained a structure similar to that of native discs. Tissue-engineered intervertebral discs should be explored further as an option for the potential treatment of degenerative disc disease.