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  • Author or Editor: Naoki Ishiguro x
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Recurrence of hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis

Report of two cases and review of the literature

Zenya Ito, Yoshimitsu Osawa, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Takaaki Aoki, Atsushi Harada and Naoki Ishiguro

✓Hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (HSP) is a comparatively rare disease characterized by hypertrophic inflammation of the dura mater and clinical symptoms that progress from local pain to myelopathy. The authors report two cases of recurrent HSP and review the English- and Japanese-language literature focusing on the recurrence of HSP.

In the first case, a man who presented at 67 years of age with lower-extremity numbness, gait disturbance, and bladder dysfunction experienced two recurrences of HSP during the 11 years of follow up after his initial laminectomy. Both recurrences were successfully treated with laminoplasty and duraplasty. Three years after his last surgical procedure, he was still able to walk with the aid of a walker. In the second case, a man who presented at 62 years of age with lower-extremity numbness and gait disturbance was initially treated successfully with steroid pulse therapy. Approximately 8 months after his initial presentation, his symptoms recurred. He underwent laminoplasty and duraplasty. At the 2.5-year follow-up examination, he had only mild neurological deficits and was still able to walk unaided.

To explore possible causes of recurrence, the authors searched the English- and Japanese-language literature for cases of HSP. Of the 96 cases identified, 11 were recurrent. Data on the presence or absence of inflammatory signs were available for 84 patients. A chi-square analysis revealed a significantly increased rate of recurrence for patients who had at least one positive inflammatory sign before surgery (six [20%] recurrent cases of 30) compared with those who had no positive inflammatory signs before surgery (two [3.7%] recurrent cases of 54) (p < 0.05). The authors conclude that HSP recurrence occurs because of active inflammation of the dura before surgery and the influence of chronic inflammation, including residual arachnoiditis.

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Yukihiro Matsuyama, Yoshihito Sakai, Yoshito Katayama, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Norimitsu Wakao, Koji Sato, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Yasutsugu Yukawa, Tokumi Kanemura, Makoto Yanase and Naoki Ishiguro

Object

The authors investigated the outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumor surgery, focusing on the effect of preoperative neurological status on postoperative mobility and the extent of tumor excision guided by intraoperative spinal cord monitoring prospectively.

Methods

Intramedullary spinal cord tumor surgery was performed in 131 patients between 1997 and 2007. The authors compared the pre- and postoperative neurological status and examined the type of surgery in 106 of these patients. A modified McCormick Scale (Grades I–V) was used to assess ambulatory ability (I = normal ambulation; II = mild motor sensory deficit, independent without external aid; III = independent with external aid; IV = care required; and V = wheelchair required). The type of surgery was classified into 4 levels: total resection, subtotal resection, partial resection, and biopsy.

Results

The 106 patients consisted of 47 females and 59 males, whose average age was 42.5 years (range 6–75 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.3 years (range 2.5 months–21 years). The tumor types included astrocytoma (12 cases), ependymoma (46 cases), hemangioblastoma (16 cases), cavernous hemangioma (17 cases), and others (15 cases overall: gangliocytoma, 1; germ cell tumor, 1; lymphoma, 3; neurinoma, 1; meningioma, 1; oligodendroglioma, 1; sarcoidosis, 2; glioma, 1; and unknown, 4). Initial total excision, subtotal resection, partial resection, biopsy, and duraplasty were performed in 59, 12, 22, 12, and 1 patients, respectively. According to the preoperative McCormick Scale, ambulatory status was classified as Grades I, II, III, IV, and V in 41(38%), 30 (28%), 14 (13%), 19 (19%), and 2 (2%) patients, respectively. Thirty-three (31%) of 106 patients suffered postoperative neurological deterioration. The number of patients who did not lose ambulatory ability or who achieved an ambulatory status of Grade I or II postoperatively was 33 (80%), 21 (70%), 10 (71%), 8 (42%), and 1 (50%) in patients with preoperative Grades I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively. Total excision was performed in 31 (79%) of 39 patients with preoperative Grade I, 12 (40%) of 30 patients with Grade II, 7 (50%) of 14 patients with Grade III, and 9 of 21 patients (38%) with Grade IV or V, indicating that the rate of total excision was significantly higher in patients with Grade I status.

Conclusions

The postoperative ambulatory ability was excellent in patients with a good preoperative neurological status. Total excision in patients with Grade I or II ambulation was associated with a good prognosis for postoperative mobility. However, the rate of postoperative deterioration was 31.5%, which is relatively high, and patients should be fully informed of this concern prior to intramedullary spinal cord tumor surgery.

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Shiro Imagama, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Yoshihito Sakai, Hiroshi Nakamura, Yoshito Katayama, Zenya Ito, Norimitsu Wakao, Koji Sato, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Fumihiko Kato, Yasutsugu Yukawa, Yasushi Miura, Hisatake Yoshihara, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Kei Ando, Kenichi Hirano, Ryoji Tauchi, Akio Muramoto and Naoki Ishiguro

Object

The purpose of this study was to provide the first evidence for image classification of idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) in a multicenter study.

Methods

Twelve patients who underwent surgery for ISCH were identified, and preoperative symptoms, severity of paralysis and myelopathy, disease duration, plain radiographs, MR imaging and CT myelography findings, surgical procedure, intraoperative findings, data from spinal cord monitoring, and postoperative recovery were investigated in these patients. Findings on sagittal MR imaging and CT myelography were classified into 3 types: a kink type (Type K), a discontinuous type (Type D), and a protrusion type (Type P). Using axial images, the location of the hiatus was classified as either central (Type C) or lateral (Type L), and the laterality of the herniated spinal cord was classified based on correspondence (same; Type S) or noncorrespondence (opposite; Type O) with the hiatus location. A bone defect at the ISCH site and the laterality of the defect were also noted.

Results

Patients with Type P herniation had a good postoperative recovery, and those with a Type C location had significant severe preoperative lower-extremity paralysis and a significantly poor postoperative recovery. Patients with a bone defect had a significantly severe preoperative myelopathy, but showed no difference in postoperative recovery.

Conclusions

The authors' results showed that a Type C classification and a bone defect have strong relationships with severity of symptoms and surgical outcome and are important imaging and clinical features for ISCH. These findings may allow surgeons to determine the severity of preoperative symptoms and the probable surgical outcome from imaging.

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Zenya Ito, Shiro Imagama, Yoshihito Sakai, Yoshito Katayama, Norimitsu Wakao, Kei Ando, Kenichi Hirano, Ryoji Tauchi, Akio Muramoto, Hany El Zahlawy, Yukihiro Matsuyama and Naoki Ishiguro

Object

The purpose of this study was to review the present criteria for the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) alert and for safe spinal surgery.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 295 patients in whom spinal cord monitoring had been performed during spinal surgery. The waveforms observed during spinal surgery were divided into the following 4 grades: Grade 0, normal; Grade 1, amplitude decrease of 50% or more and latency delay of 10% or more; Grade 2, multiphase pattern; and Grade 3, loss of amplitude. Waveform grading, its relationship with postoperative motor deficit, and CMAP sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. Whenever any wave abnormality occurred, the surgeon was notified and the surgical procedures were temporarily suspended. If no improvements were seen, the surgery was terminated.

Results

Compound muscle action potential wave changes occurred in 38.6% of cases. With Grade 1 or 2 changes, no paresis was detected. Postoperative motor deficits were seen in 8 patients, all with Grade 3 waveform changes. Among the 287 patients without postoperative motor deficits, CMAP changes were not seen in 181, with a specificity of 63%. The false-positive rate was 37% (106 of 287). However, when a Grade 2 change was set as the alarm point, sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 79.4%. The false-positive rate was 20% (59 of 295).

Conclusions

Neither the Grade 1 nor the Grade 2 groups included patients who demonstrated a motor deficit. All pareses occurred in cases showing a Grade 3 change. Therefore, the authors propose a Grade 2 change (multiphasic waveform) as a new alarm point. With the application of this criterion, the false-positive rate can be reduced to 20%.

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Ryoji Tauchi, Shiro Imagama, Hidefumi Inoh, Yasutsugu Yukawa, Tokumi Kanemura, Koji Sato, Yoshihito Sakai, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Hisatake Yoshihara, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Akio Muramoto, Hiroki Matsui, Tomohiro Matsumoto, Junichi Ukai, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Ryuichi Shinjo, Hiroaki Nakashima, Masayoshi Morozumi and Naoki Ishiguro

Object

Cervical spondylosis that causes upper-extremity muscle atrophy without gait disturbance is called cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA). The distal type of CSA is characterized by weakness of the hand muscles. In this retrospective analysis, the authors describe the clinical features of the distal type of CSA and evaluate the results of surgical treatment.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective review of 17 consecutive cases involving 16 men and 1 woman (mean age 56.3 years) who underwent surgical treatment for the distal type of CSA. The condition was diagnosed on the basis of cervical spondylosis in the presence of muscle impairment of the upper extremity (intrinsic muscle and/or finger extension muscles) without gait disturbance, and the presence of a compressive lesion involving the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the nerve root at the foramen, or both sites as seen on axial and sagittal views of MRI or CT myelography. The authors assessed spinal cord or nerve root impingement by MRI or CT myelography and evaluated surgical outcomes.

Results

The preoperative duration of symptoms averaged 11.8 months. There were 14 patients with impingement of the anterior horn of the spinal cord and 3 patients with both anterior horn and nerve root impingement. Twelve patients were treated with laminoplasty (plus foraminotomy in 1 case), 3 patients were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and 2 patients were treated with posterior spinal fixation. The mean manual muscle testing grade was 2.4 (range 1–4) preoperatively and 3.4 (range 1–5) postoperatively. The surgical results were excellent in 7 patients, good in 2, and fair in 8.

Conclusions

Most of the patients in this series of cases of the distal type of CSA suffered from impingement of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and surgical outcome was fair in about half of the cases.

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Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Hideki Yagi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa and Naoki Ishiguro

OBJECT

Little is known about the progression of spinal schwannomas. The aim of this study was to determine the natural progression of spinal schwannomas and establish the risk of tumor growth.

METHODS

This study retrospectively analyzed data from 23 patients (12 men and 11 women, 40–89 years old) with schwannomas detected by MRI. The mean follow-up period was 5 years (range 2–10 years). The absolute and relative growth rates of the tumors were calculated.

RESULTS

The average tumor size was 1495 mm3 at the initial visit and 2224 mm3 at the final follow-up. The average absolute growth rate was 139 mm3 per year, and the average relative growth rate was 5.3% per year. Tumors were classified into 3 groups based on enhancement patterns: isointense/hyperintense (iso/high; 11 cases), rim enhancement when enhancement was peripheral (high/rim; 5 cases), and heterogeneous/heterogeneous (hetero/hetero; 7 cases) based on Gd-enhanced T2-weighted MRI. The average absolute growth rates of the 3 lesion groups were 588 mm3, 957 mm3, and 3379 mm3, respectively (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Although the tumors classified as iso/high and high/rim on T2-weighted Gd-enhanced MR images were small and grew very little, most tumors with hetero/hetero classification increased in size. Hetero/hetero-type tumors should be followed closely and may require surgery.

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Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Yoshihiro Nishida and Naoki Ishiguro

OBJECTIVE

Corrective surgery for spinal deformities can lead to neurological complications. Several reports have described spinal cord monitoring in surgery for spinal deformity, but only a few have included patients younger than 20 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of cases with intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (Tc-MEP) waveform deterioration during posterior corrective fusion for AIS.

METHODS

A prospective database was reviewed, comprising 68 patients with AIS who were treated with posterior corrective fusion in a prospective database. A total of 864 muscles in the lower extremities were chosen for monitoring, and acceptable baseline responses were obtained from 819 muscles (95%). Intraoperative Tc-MEP waveform deterioration was defined as a decrease in intraoperative amplitude of ≥ 70% of the control waveform. Age, Cobb angle, flexibility, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), intraoperative body temperature, blood pressure, number of levels fused, and correction rate were examined in patients with and without waveform deterioration.

RESULTS

The patients (3 males and 65 females) had an average age of 14.4 years (range 11–19 years). The mean Cobb angles before and after surgery were 52.9° and 11.9°, respectively, giving a correction rate of 77.4%. Fourteen patients (20%) exhibited an intraoperative waveform change, and these occurred during incision (14%), after screw fixation (7%), during the rotation maneuver (64%), during placement of the second rod after the rotation maneuver (7%), and after intervertebral compression (7%). Most waveform changes recovered after decreased correction or rest. No patient had a motor deficit postoperatively. In multivariate analysis, EBL (OR 1.001, p = 0.085) and number of levels fused (OR 1.535, p = 0.045) were associated with waveform deterioration.

CONCLUSIONS

Waveform deterioration commonly occurred during rotation maneuvers and more frequently in patients with a larger preoperative Cobb angle. The significant relationships of EBL and number of levels fused with waveform deterioration suggest that these surgical invasions may be involved in waveform deterioration.