Yoshihiro Muragaki, Jiro Akimoto, Takashi Maruyama, Hiroshi Iseki, Soko Ikuta, Masayuki Nitta, Katsuya Maebayashi, Taiichi Saito, Yoshikazu Okada, Sadao Kaneko, Akira Matsumura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Yoichi Nakazato and Takamasa Kayama
The objective of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium and irradiation using a 664-nm semiconductor laser in patients with primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors.
In 27 patients with suspected newly diagnosed or recurrent primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors, a single intravenous injection of talaporfin sodium (40 mg/m2) was administered 1 day before resection of the neoplasm. The next day after completion of the tumor removal, the residual lesion and/or resection cavity were irradiated using a 664-nm semiconductor laser with a radiation power density of 150 mW/cm2 and a radiation energy density of 27 J/cm2. The procedure was performed 22–27 hours after drug administration. The study cohort included 22 patients with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of primary malignant parenchymal brain tumor. Thirteen of these neoplasms (59.1%) were newly diagnosed glioblastomas multiforme (GBM).
Among all 22 patients included in the study cohort, the 12-month overall survival (OS), 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), and 6-month local PFS rates after surgery and PDT were 95.5%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. Among patients with newly diagnosed GBMs, all these parameters were 100%. Side effects on the skin, which could be attributable to the administration of talaporfin sodium, were noted in 7.4% of patients and included rash (2 cases), blister (1 case), and erythema (1 case). Skin photosensitivity test results were relatively mild and fully disappeared within 15 days after administration of photosensitizer in all patients.
Intraoperative PDT using talaporfin sodium and a semiconductor laser may be considered as a potentially effective and sufficiently safe option for adjuvant management of primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors. The inclusion of intraoperative PDT in a combined treatment strategy may have a positive impact on OS and local tumor control, particularly in patients with newly diagnosed GBMs. Clinical trial registration no.: JMA-IIA00026 (https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=862).
Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Hiroshi Iseki, Masahiko Tanaka, Chie Shinohara, Kintomo Takakura, Koji Tsuboi, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Masao Matsutani, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Katsunori Shimada, Naohito Yamaguchi, Yoichi Nakazato, Keiki Sato, Youji Uemae, Tadao Ohno, Yoshikazu Okada and Tomokatsu Hori
The objective of the present study was analysis of results of the prospective clinical trial directed toward the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of the administration of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy in cases of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.
Twenty-four patients were enrolled into the clinical trial, while 2 cases were excluded from the final analysis of results. The treatment protocol included aggressive tumor resection, fractionated radiotherapy up to a total dose of 60 Gy, and 3 concomitant courses of AFTV administered with an interval of one week at the late stage of irradiation. Two delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests were done—one 48 hours before the initial course of vaccination (DTH-1) and one 2 weeks after the third (DTH-2). All but one of the patients received salvage therapy at the time of tumor progression. The defined primary end point was overall survival; secondary end points were progression-free survival and safety of concomitant treatment.
The median duration of overall survival was 19.8 months (95% CI 13.8–31.3 months). The actuarial 2-year survival rate was 40%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% CI 4.3–13.6 months). Overall survival showed a statistically significant association with recursive partitioning analysis class (p < 0.05); progression-free survival showed a statistically significant association with p53 staining index (p < 0.05) and size of DTH-2 response (p < 0.001). AFTV injection concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy was well tolerated by all patients and in no case did treatment-related adverse effects exceed Grade 1 toxicity; adverse effects were limited to local erythema, induration, and swelling at the site of injection.
The results of this study demonstrate that AFTV treatment concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy may be effective in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Further clinical testing is warranted.