Shunya Hanakita, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Hiroshi Igaki and Nobuhito Saito
Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been accepted as a therapeutic option for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children and adolescents, substantial data are still lacking regarding the outcomes of SRS for AVMs in this age group, especially long-term complications. This study aimed to clarify the long-term outcomes of SRS for the treatment of AVM in pediatric patients aged ≤ 18 years.
Outcomes of 116 patients who were aged 4–18 years when they underwent SRS between 1990 and 2009 at the study institute were analyzed retrospectively.
The median follow-up period after SRS was 100 months, with 6 patients followed up for more than 20 years. Actuarial obliteration rates at 3 and 5 years after SRS were 68% and 88%, respectively. Five hemorrhages occurred in 851 patient-years of follow-up. The annual bleeding rate after SRS before obliteration was calculated as 1.3%, which decreased to 0.2% after obliteration. Shorter maximum nidus diameter (p = 0.02) and higher margin dose (p = 0.03) were associated with a higher obliteration rate. Ten patients experienced adverse events after SRS. Of them, 4 patients presented with delayed complications years after SRS (range 9–20 years after SRS).
SRS can reduce the risk of hemorrhage in pediatric and adolescent AVMs, with an acceptable risk of complications in the long term. However, adverse events such as expanding hematoma and radiation necrosis that can occur after substantial follow-up should be taken into account at the time that treatment decisions are made and informed consent is obtained.
Keisuke Maruyama, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Hiroshi Igaki, Masao Tago and Nobuhito Saito
Optimal timing of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) after hemorrhage from brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is unclear and of concern to neurosurgeons because GKS is usually performed after absorption of the hematoma. The authors investigated whether waiting for hematoma absorption is beneficial and aimed to clarify the optimal treatment timing.
The authors retrospectively studied 211 patients with AVMs who presented with hemorrhage and underwent GKS as the initial treatment. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to the interval between the time of first hemorrhage and GKS, as follows: Group 1, 0–3 months (70 patients); Group 2, 3–6 months (62 patients); and Group 3, > 6 months (79 patients). The obliteration rates, number of hemorrhages before and after GKS, and complication rates were compared between these 3 groups. The authors also analyzed a subgroup of 127 patients who presented with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to identify the influence of ICH on outcome.
After a median follow-up of 6.3 years, the rates of obliteration, hemorrhage after treatment, and complication were not significantly different between the 3 groups even though the patients with a longer interval before GKS (Group 3) had more AVMs in eloquent areas and neurological deficits. However, the numbers of patients with preoperative hemorrhage in the interval before GKS was significantly higher in Group 3 (1, 3, and 20 patients in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively). These results were similar in the analyses of 127 patients presenting with ICH.
No benefit was detected in waiting for hematoma absorption until GKS after hemorrhage from AVM. Because of higher hemorrhagic risk until GKS > 6 months after hemorrhage, the authors recommend GKS within 6 months after hemorrhage.
Shunya Hanakita, Tomoyuki Koga, Masahiro Shin, Masaaki Shojima, Hiroshi Igaki and Nobuhito Saito
The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the management of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs).
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of a group of 22 patients who underwent GKS for dAVFs at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1991 and 2009. The patients underwent CT or MR imaging with contrast enhancement every 6 months after GKS; when obliteration of a dAVF was indicated by these images, patients also underwent angiography. Follow-up in these patients ranged from 12 months to 100 months (median 33 months) after GKS.
Obliteration of the dAVF was confirmed by neuroimaging in 12 patients (55%). According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, obliteration rates for the dAVFs were 51% at 3 years and 80% at 5 years. The obliteration rate for lesions without cortical venous drainage (CVD) was 86%, which was significantly higher than the rate for dAVFs with CVD (47%) (p = 0.007). Hemorrhage at presentation (p = 0.03), a target volume less than 1.5 cm3 (p = 0.009), and Cognard Type III or IV dAVF (p = 0.005) were factors associated with a higher obliteration rate. Among 10 patients whose dAVFs were not obliterated by the initial GKS, 5 patients underwent additional treatment and complete obliteration was achieved in all. Relief of tinnitus was obtained in 5 (83%) of 6 patients with transverse-sigmoid sinus dAVFs, and ophthalmic symptoms improved in 2 (67%) of 3 patients with cavernous sinus dAVFs. No patient experienced interval hemorrhage or radiation-induced complications after treatment.
Gamma Knife surgery is a safe and effective treatment for dAVF. It can be a first line of therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment strategy for dAVFs, especially when significant morbidity is anticipated with other therapeutic options. One should be very careful about recommending GKS for patients harboring dAVFs with CVD because of the expected natural history of such a lesion and the possibility of other therapeutic options.
Shunya Hanakita, Tomoyuki Koga, Hiroshi Igaki, Naoya Murakami, Soichi Oya, Masahiro Shin and Nobuhito Saito
Atypical meningioma often recurs even after resection. As a salvage modality, radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is attempted for this aggressive tumor. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of SRS that involved Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for atypical meningioma.
The authors reviewed records from 22 patients with histologically proven atypical meningioma who underwent GKS for 28 lesions at the authors' institute. The median patient age was 70 years (range 24–91 years), and the median tumor volume for each procedure was 6.0 cm3 (range 1.6–38.7 cm3). The margin dose ranged from 14 to 20 Gy (median 18 Gy). Follow-up periods ranged from 3 months to 98 months (median 23.5 months).
In total, 39 GKS procedures were performed for 28 lesions. The local control rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were 74%, 39%, and 16%, respectively. Volume less than 6 cm3 (p = 0.01), a margin dose higher than 18 Gy (p = 0.02), and a Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score of 90 or more (p = 0.02) were factors associated with a longer duration of tumor control in the univariate analysis.
Atypical meningioma could be more successfully controlled when a higher margin dose was used to treat patients with a good performance (KPS score of ≥ 90) status and smaller tumor volumes. It would be desired if patients are treated with a relatively higher margin dose, ideally as high as the dose applied for malignant tumor. A boost SRS after fractionated radiotherapy may be effective to achieve better local control.
Keisuke Maruyama, Tomoyuki Koga, Kyousuke Kamada, Takahiro Ota, Daisuke Itoh, Kenji Ino, Hiroshi Igaki, Shigeki Aoki, Yoshitaka Masutani, Masahiro Shin and Nobuhito Saito
To prevent speech disturbances after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), the authors integrated arcuate fasciculus (AF) tractography based on diffusion tensor (DT) MR imaging into treatment planning for GKS.
Arcuate fasciculus tractography was retrospectively integrated into planning that had been previously performed by neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists. This technique was retrospectively applied to 12 patients with arteriovenous malformations adjacent to the AF. Diffusion tensor images were acquired before the frame was affixed to the patient's head and DT tractography images of the AF were created using the authors' original software. The data from DT tractography and stereotactic 3D imaging studies obtained after frame fixation were transported to a treatment planning workstation for GKS and coregistered so that the delivered doses and incidence of posttreatment aphasia could be assessed.
The AF could not be depicted in 2 patients who initially presented with motor aphasia caused by hemorrhaging from arteriovenous malformations. During the median follow-up period of 29 months after GKS, aphasia developed in 2 patients: 30 Gy delivered to the frontal portion of the AF caused conduction aphasia in 1 patient, and 9.6 Gy to the temporal portion led to motor aphasia in the other. Speech dysfunction was not observed after a maximum radiation dose of 10.0–16.8 Gy was delivered to the frontal fibers in 4 patients, and 3.6–5.2 Gy to the temporal fibers in 3.
The authors found that administration of a 10-Gy radiation dose during GKS was tolerated in the frontal but not the temporal fibers of the AF. The authors recommend confirmation of the dose by integration of AF tractography with GKS, especially in lesions located near the temporal language fibers.