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  • Author or Editor: Min-Ju Kim x
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Chang Ju Hwang, Choon-Ki Lee, Bong-Soon Chang, Min-Seok Kim, Jin S. Yeom and Jin-Man Choi


The aim of this study was to evaluate after more than 5 years the outcome of surgical treatment for flexible idiopathic scoliosis using skipped pedicle screw fixation.


For patients with spine curves < 90° and flexibility > 20%, pedicle screws had been inserted into every other segment on the corrective side and 2–4 screws per curve had been inserted on the supportive side. The authors analyzed the results in 57 patients, including the correction rate of coronal curvature and rotational deformity, correction loss, sagittal balance, complications, blood loss, operation time, and implant costs.


The mean Cobb angle was 54° preoperatively and 17° immediately after surgery (69% correction). At the last follow-up, the mean Cobb angle was 18° (2% correction loss). Rotation of the apical vertebra was corrected by 50% on average and showed only a 6% correction loss at the last follow-up. None of the patients had problems in maintaining sagittal balance. An adding-on phenomenon was detected in 4 patients (7%). Twelve of 14 patients with coronal decompensation showed improvement after surgery, whereas postoperative decompensation developed in 3 patients. Four patients had implant failures, and 4 had postoperative infections. The mean blood loss during surgery was 832 ml, and the mean operation time was 167 minutes. Compared with conventional methods, the authors' method used up to 48% fewer screws.


Skipped pedicle screw fixation of flexible idiopathic scoliosis showed satisfactory results. This method has several advantages, including reduced blood loss, shorter operation time, and reduced cost.

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Nam Ik Cho, Chang Ju Hwang, Ho Yeon Kim, Jong-Min Baik, Youn Suk Joo, Choon Sung Lee, Mi Young Lee, So Jeong Yoon and Dong-Ho Lee


The need for scoliosis screening remains controversial. Nationwide school screening for scoliosis has not been performed in South Korea, and there are few studies on the referral patterns of patients suspected of having scoliosis. This study aimed to examine the referral patterns to the largest scoliosis center in South Korea in the absence of a school screening program and to analyze the factors that influence the appropriateness of referral.


The medical records of patients who visited a single scoliosis center for a spinal deformity evaluation were reviewed. Among 1895 new patients who visited this scoliosis center between April 2014 and March 2016, 1211 with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in the study. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to the referral method: non–health care provider, primary physician, hospital specialist, or school screening program. The appropriateness of referral was labeled as inappropriate, late, or appropriate. In total, 213 of 1211 patients were excluded because they had received treatment at another medical facility; 998 patients were evaluated to determine the appropriateness of referral.


Of the 998 referrals of new patients with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 162 (16.2%) were classified as an inappropriate referral, 272 (27.3%) were classified as a late referral, and 564 (56.5%) were classified as an appropriate referral. Age, sex, Cobb angle of the major curve, and skeletal maturity were identified as statistically significant factors that correlated with the appropriateness of referral. The referral method did not correlate with the appropriateness of referral.


Under the current health care system in South Korea, a substantial number of patients with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are referred either late or inappropriately to a tertiary medical center. Although patients referred by school screening programs had a significantly lower late referral rate and higher appropriate referral rate than the other 3 groups, the referral method was not a significant factor in terms of the appropriateness of referral.