✓ One hundred fifty-two intracranial gliomas of various types were reviewed in order to correlate the histopathological features with the proliferative potential of each tumor as reflected by the bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) labeling index (LI). Patients undergoing surgical removal of gliomas were given a 30-minute intravenous infusion of BUdR (150 to 200 mg/sq m) to label S-phase tumor cells. The tumor specimens were stained immunohistochemically for BUdR and processed for routine histopathological diagnosis. The BUdR LI was calculated as the percentage of labeled cells among cells analyzed. Twenty-seven histological features in three categories (degenerative, vascular, and cellular changes) were considered. A significantly higher BUdR LI (p < 0.05) was found in tumors with necrosis than in those without this feature; tumors with both coagulative and liquefactive necrosis had the highest BUdR LI (p < 0.05). Increased vascularity was also associated with a higher BUdR LI (p < 0.05). Although tumors with abnormal mitotic figures had a significantly higher BUdR LI than those without, the number of mitoses did not correlate with a higher BUdR LI. These results suggest that the number of mitoses is not a good indicator of tumor growth rate. Necrosis and increased vascularity should be heavily weighted in predicting the proliferative potential of individual gliomas.
Isabelle M. Germano, Masami Ito, Kyung G. Cho, Takao Hoshino, Richard L. Davis and Charles B. Wilson
Takao Hoshino, Michael Prados, Charles B. Wilson, Kyung Gi Cho, Kyu-Sung Lee and Richard L. Davis
✓ This study includes 182 patients with intracranial gliomas who received bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 200 mg/sq m intravenously, at the time of craniotomy but before tumor biopsy. The tumor specimens were stained for BUdR using the immunoperoxidase method; the BUdR labeling index (LI), or S-phase fraction, was calculated as the percentage of BUdR-positive cells. The median BUdR LI's for 127 primary moderately anaplastic astrocytomas, highly anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastomas (< 1%, 2.7%, and 7.3%, respectively; range 0% to 38.1%) were not significantly different from those of 55 similar recurrent tumors (< 1%, 4.3%, and 7.4%, respectively; range 0% to 30.5%). The mean LI was significantly higher in tumors from patients over 50 years of age than in tumors from younger patients (p < 0.001). This age-related difference in LI's was found in both groups of patients with astrocytomas but not in those with glioblastomas. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a significantly greater probability of survival among patients whose tumors had LI's of less than 1% than among those with LI's greater than 5%; survival probability of patients with tumor LI's of 1% to 5% was intermediate between the two extremes. Thus, the BUdR LI appears to reflect the proliferative potential more accurately than the histopathological diagnosis and should therefore be considered an important factor in determining the prognosis of individual patients with intracranial gliomas and in selecting their treatment.
Takao Hoshino, Luis A. Rodriguez, Kyung G. Cho, Kyu S. Lee, Charles B. Wilson, Michael S. B. Edwards, Victor A. Levin and Richard L. Davis
✓ The proliferative potential of low-grade astrocytomas was estimated in 47 patients. Each patient received an intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 150 to 200 mg/sq m, at the time of craniotomy to label cells in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis; the percentage of S-phase cells, or BUdR labeling index (LI), of each tumor was determined immunohistochemically. In 29 patients (60%), the tumors had BUdR LI's of less than 1%, indicating a slow growth rate; only three (10%) of these patients died of recurrent tumor during a follow-up period of up to 3½ years. In contrast, of the 18 patients (40%) whose tumors had BUdR LI's of 1% or more, 12 (67%) had a recurrence and nine died during the same follow-up period. These results show that the proliferative potential, as reflected by the BUdR LI, is an important prognostic factor that separates low-grade astrocytomas into two groups and provides a more scientific rationale for selecting treatment for individual patients.
Takao Hoshino, Tadashi Nagashima, Judith A. Murovic, Charles B. Wilson, Michael S. B. Edwards, Philip H. Gutin, Richard L. Davis and Stephen J. DeArmond
✓ Thirty-eight patients undergoing surgical removal of neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system were given a 1-hour intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 150 to 200 mg/sq m, to label tumor cells in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase (S-phase). The excised tumor specimens were divided into two portions: one was fixed with 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin and the other was digested with an enzyme cocktail to make a single-cell suspension. The paraffin-embedded tissues were stained by an indirect peroxidase method using anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody (MA) as the first antibody. Single-cell suspensions were reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-BUdR MA's for flow cytometric analysis. S-phase cells that had incorporated BUdR into their DNA were well stained by both methods. The percentage of BUdR-labeled cells, or S-phase fraction, was calculated in tissue sections by microscopic examination and in single-cell suspensions by flow cytometric analysis. The biological malignancy of the tumors was reflected in the S-phase fractions, which were 5% to 20% for glioblastoma multiforme, medulloblastoma, and highly anaplastic astrocytoma, but less than 1% in most moderately anaplastic astrocytomas, ependymomas, and mixed gliomas. Two juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and two low-grade astrocytomas from children had high S-phase fractions despite the fairly benign and slow-growing nature of these tumors. These results indicate that the S-phase fraction obtained immunocytochemically with anti-BUdR MA's may provide useful information in estimating the biological malignancy of human central nervous system tumors in situ.