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  • Author or Editor: Brandon Rocque x
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Matthew C. Davis, Betsy D. Hopson, Jeffrey P. Blount, Rachel Carroll, Tracey S. Wilson, Danielle K. Powell, Amie B. Jackson McLain and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Predictors of permanent disability among individuals with spinal dysraphism are not well established. In this study, the authors examined potential risk factors for self-reported permanent disability among adults with spinal dysraphism.

METHODS

A total of 188 consecutive individuals undergoing follow-up in an adult spinal dysraphism clinic completed a standardized National Spina Bifida Patient Registry survey. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to assess bivariate relationships, while multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with self-identification as “permanently disabled.”

RESULTS

A total of 106 (56.4%) adults with spina bifida identified themselves as permanently disabled. On multivariate analysis, relative to completion of primary and/or secondary school, completion of technical school (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0–0.40; p = 0.021), some college (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08–0.53; p < 0.001), college degree (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.003–0.66; p = 0.019), and holding an advanced degree (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03–0.45; p = 0.002) were negatively associated with permanent disability. Relative to open myelomeningocele, diagnosis of closed spinal dysraphism was also negatively associated with permanent disability (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04–0.90; p = 0.036). Additionally, relative to no stool incontinence, stool incontinence occurring at least daily (OR 6.41, 95% CI 1.56–32.90; p = 0.009) or more than weekly (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.10–11.89; p = 0.033) were both positively associated with permanent disability. There was a suggestion of a dose-response relationship with respect to the influence of educational achievement and frequency of stool incontinence on the likelihood of permanent disability.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ findings suggest that level of education and degree of stool incontinence are the strongest predictors of permanent disability among adults with spinal dysraphism. These findings will be the basis of efforts to improve community engagement and to improve readiness for transition to adult care in a multidisciplinary pediatric spina bifida clinic.

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Brandon G. Rocque, E. Ralee' Bishop, Mallory A. Scogin, Betsy D. Hopson, Anastasia A. Arynchyna, Christina J. Boddiford, Chevis N. Shannon and Jeffrey P. Blount

OBJECT

The purpose of this study is to explore various aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with spinal dysraphism.

METHODS

The authors enrolled a prospective cohort of 159 patients from the multidisciplinary spina bifida clinic. Surveys were distributed to caregivers of patients with spina bifida who were 5 years old and older. Data were collected using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 focusing on vision, speech, hearing, dexterity, ambulation, cognition, emotions, and pain. Each participant received an overall HRQOL utility score and individual domain subscores. These were correlated with demographic and treatment variables. Analysis was done using SPSS statistics (version 21).

RESULTS

There were 125 patients with myelomeningocele, 25 with lipomyelomeningocele, and 9 with other dysraphisms. Among patients with myelomeningocele, 107 (86%) had CSF shunts in place, 14 (11%) had undergone Chiari malformation Type II decompression, 59 (47%) were community ambulators, and 45 (36%) were nonambulatory. Patients with myelomeningocele had significantly lower overall HRQOL scores than patients with closed spinal dysraphism. Among patients with myelomeningocele, younger patients had higher HRQOL scores. Patients with impaired bowel continence had lower overall HRQOL scores. History of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was associated with worse HRQOL (overall score, ambulation, and cognition subscores). History of Chiari malformation Type II decompression was associated with worse overall, speech, and cognition scores. Patients who could ambulate in the community had higher overall and ambulation scores. A history of tethered cord release was correlated with lower pain subscore. No association was found between sex, race, insurance type, or bladder continence and HRQOL.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with myelomeningocele have significantly lower HRQOL scores than those with other spinal dysraphisms. History of shunt treatment and Chiari decompression correlate with lower HRQOL scores.

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Elizabeth N. Alford, Betsy D. Hopson, Frederick Safyanov, Anastasia Arynchyna, Robert J. Bollo, Todd C. Hankinson, Brandon G. Rocque and Jeffrey P. Blount

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical management preferences related to myelomeningocele (MMC) care demonstrate significant variability. The authors sought to evaluate variability in practice patterns across a group of senior pediatric neurosurgeons. The purpose of this study was to identify the extent of variability and of consensus with regard to neurosurgical management of MMC and associated hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, and tethered spinal cord.

METHODS

A 43-question survey was distributed electronically to the members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). The survey covered domains such as clinic case volume, newborn management, hydrocephalus management, transition to adulthood, clinical indications for shunt revision, Chiari II malformation decompression (C2MD), and tethered cord release (TCR). Ninety responses were received from 200 active ASPN members, for an overall response rate of 45%.

RESULTS

The majority (58%) of respondents closed 5–15 new cases of open MMC per year. Nearly all (98%) respondents perform back closure within 48 hours of birth, with the majority imbricating the placode and striving for a 3- to 4-layer closure. The most consistent indications for surgical intervention in early hydrocephalus were CSF leak from the back (92%), progressive ventricular enlargement (89%), and brainstem symptoms, including apnea/bradycardia (81%), stridor (81%), and dysphagia (81%). Eighty percent of respondents indicated that spina bifida care is delivered through multidisciplinary clinics, with neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, urology, physical therapy, and social work as the most common disciplines included. One-third of clinics see both pediatric and adult patients, one-third offer a formal transition program to adult care, and one-third have no transition program. The vast majority of respondents offer prenatal counseling (95%), referral for in utero closure (66%), and endoscopic third ventriculostomy/choroid plexus cauterization (72%). Respondents were more willing to perform shunt revision for symptoms alone than for image changes alone. An asymptomatic broken shunt without ventricular enlargement produced responses evenly divided between observation, intervention, and further investigation. Operative shunt exploration was always performed before C2MD by 56% of respondents and performed sometimes by 40% of respondents. Symptoms of brainstem dysfunction were the strongest clinical triggers reported for C2MD, while declines in urinary continence, leg strength or sensation, or ambulation were the most consistent thresholds for TCR.

CONCLUSIONS

Significant disparities exist surrounding key areas of decision making regarding treatment for patients with MMC, though there are central areas of agreement among ASPN members. Additionally, there is significant variation in the clinical management of chronic hydrocephalus, C2MD, and TCR, underscoring the need for further research into these specific areas.