Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Naosuke Kamei, Takeshi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Ujigo, Norihiko Sumiyoshi, Takanori Rikita, Atsushi Takazawa and Mitsuo Ochi
The occurrence of compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM) increases in adults over 50 years of age. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequent comorbidity for people of this age and may impact the severity of CCM. The authors assessed motor pathway function in diabetic patients with CCM to investigate the correlation between electrophysiological parameters and clinical symptoms.
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) and the abductor hallucis muscle (AH) following transcranial magnetic stimulation, as were M- and F-waves following electrical stimulation of the ulnar and tibial nerves, in 22 patients with CCM and diabetes mellitus (DM) who had not experienced symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (CCM-DM group), in 92 patients with CCM alone (CCM group), and in 24 healthy adults (control group). The peripheral conduction time (PCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated as follows: (M-wave latency + F-wave latency −1)/2. The central motor conduction time (CMCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated by subtracting the PCT from the onset latency of the MEPs. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was obtained before and 1 year after surgery as a clinical outcome measure.
MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters in the CCM-DM and CCM groups were significantly longer than those in the control group (p = 0.000−0.007). The PCTs in the CCM-DM group were significantly longer than those in the CCM group (p = 0.001−0.003). No significant differences were detected in the MEP and CMCT parameters between the CCM-DM and CCM groups (p = 0.080–1.000). The JOA score before surgery in the CCM-DM group was 10.7 ± 2.0 points and was significantly lower than that in the CCM group (12.2 ± 2.5 points, p = 0.015). In the CCM-DM group, JOA scores before surgery correlated with MEP-AH (r = −0.610, p = 0.012) and PCT-AH (r = −0.676, p = 0.004) values, but not with CMCT values, while the JOA scores were related to both MEP and CMCT parameters in the CCM group. The JOA scores improved to 13.8 ± 2.2 points after surgery (p = 0.001) and correlated with MEP-AH (r = −0.667, p = 0.005) and PCT-AH (r = −0.611, p = 0.012) in the CCM-DM group.
The results suggest that MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters each reveal abnormalities in the upper and lower motor neurons even in patients with DM. The results also show a prolonged PCT in CCM-DM patients, despite having no history of diabetic neuropathy. Corticospinal tract impairments are similar between CCM and CCM-DM patients, while the JOA score of the CCM-DM patients is lower than that in the CCM patients. The JOA score in CCM-DM patients may be influenced by additional impairments in peripheral nerves or other diabetic complications. These electrophysiological studies may be useful for screening motor pathway function for CCM in patients with DM.
Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Naosuke Kamei, Ryo Ohta, Yuki Fujioka, Takeshi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Ujigo and Mitsuo Ochi
Cervical laminoplasty is a surgical procedure for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM), and satisfactory outcomes have been reported. However, few reports have examined the pathophysiology of improvements in spinal cord function. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in central motor conduction time (CMCT) before and after cervical laminoplasty in patients with CCM.
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and F-waves following electrical stimulation of the ulnar and tibial nerves at the wrist and ankle were measured from the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) and abductor hallucis muscle (AH) in 42 patients with CCM before and 1 year after cervical laminoplasty. The peripheral conduction time (PCT) was calculated as follows: (latency of CMAPs + latency of F-waves − 1)/2. The CMCT was calculated by subtracting the PCT from the onset latency of the MEPs. The CMCT recovery ratio was defined and calculated as the ratio of CMCT values 1 year after surgery to those before surgery. The CMCT data were analyzed as longer or shorter CMCT between the patients' right and left ADMs and AHs. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was obtained as a clinical outcome before and 1 year after surgery. The recovery rate (RR) 1 year after surgery was calculated using the following formula: (postoperative JOA score 1 year after surgery – preoperative JOA score)/(17 – preoperative JOA score) × 100. Correlations among CMCT parameters, patient age, JOA score, and RR were determined.
The longer and shorter CMCTs from the ADM (longer, p = 0.000; shorter, p = 0.008) and the longer CMCT from the AH (longer, p = 0.000) before surgery decreased significantly 1 year after surgery; the shorter CMCT from the AH did not significantly differ (shorter, p = 0.078). The mean JOA score before surgery was 10.1 ± 3.0 and improved significantly to 12.9 ± 2.7 at 1 year after surgery (p = 0.000). The mean CMCT recovery ratio and RR were 0.91 ± 0.18 and 0.43 ± 0.27, respectively. The longer/shorter CMCT parameters in the ADM and AH before or 1 year after surgery correlated significantly with the JOA score both before and 1 year after surgery. The CMCT recovery ratio from the longer CMCT in the ADM correlated significantly with the RR (r = − 3090, p = 0.011). There were no significant correlations between age and any CMCT parameters or CMCT recovery ratios.
These results suggest that cervical laminoplasty improves corticospinal tract function 1 year after surgery, which may be one of the reasons for the JOA score improvements in patients with CCM. The degree of improvement in corticospinal tract function did not correlate with patient age in this case series. The results demonstrated quantitative evidence of the pathophysiology of functional recovery in the corticospinal tract following cervical laminoplasty in patients with CCM.