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  • Author or Editor: Takashi Yamamoto x
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Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Masaaki Yamamoto, Toru Serizawa, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Jun Kawagishi, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano and Hidefumi Aoyama

OBJECTIVE

Previous Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society studies (JLGK0901) demonstrated the noninferiority of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone as the initial treatment for patients with 5–10 brain metastases (BMs) compared with those with 2–4 BMs in terms of overall survival and most secondary endpoints. The authors studied the aforementioned treatment outcomes in a subset of patients with BMs from non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

METHODS

Patients with initially diagnosed BMs treated with SRS alone were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Major inclusion criteria were the existence of up to 10 tumors with a maximum diameter of less than 3 cm each, a cumulative tumor volume of less than 15 cm3, and no leptomeningeal dissemination in patients with a Karnofsky Performance Scale score of 70% or better.

RESULTS

Among 1194 eligible patients, 784 with NSCLC were categorized into 3 groups: group A (1 tumor, n = 299), group B (2–4 tumors, n = 342), and group C (5–10 tumors, n = 143). The median survival times were 13.9 months in group A, 12.3 months in group B, and 12.8 months in group C. The survival curves of groups B and C were very similar (hazard ratio [HR] 1.037; 95% CI 0.842–1.277; p < 0.0001, noninferiority test). The crude and cumulative incidence rates of neurological death, deterioration of neurological function, newly appearing lesions, and leptomeningeal dissemination did not differ significantly between groups B and C. SRS-induced complications occurred in 145 (12.1%) patients during the median post-SRS period of 9.3 months (IQR 4.1–17.4 months), including 46, 54, 29, 11, and 5 patients with a Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grade 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 complication, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of adverse effects in groups A, B, and C 60 months after SRS were 13.5%, 10.0%, and 12.6%, respectively (group B vs C: HR 1.344; 95% CI 0.768–2.352; p = 0.299). The 60-month post-SRS rates of neurocognitive function preservation were 85.7% or higher, and no significant differences among the 3 groups were found.

CONCLUSIONS

In this subset analysis of patients with NSCLC, the noninferiority of SRS alone for the treatment of 5–10 versus 2–4 BMs was confirmed again in terms of overall survival and secondary endpoints. In particular, the incidence of neither post-SRS complications nor neurocognitive function preservation differed significantly between groups B and C. These findings further strengthen the already-reported noninferiority hypothesis of SRS alone for the treatment of patients with 5–10 BMs.

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Toru Serizawa, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yasunori Sato, Takashi Shuto, Atsuya Akabane, Hidefumi Jokura, Shoji Yomo, Osamu Nagano, Jun Kawagishi and Kazuhiro Yamanaka

OBJECTIVE

The Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife (JLGK)0901 study proved the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with 5–10 brain metastases (BMs) as compared to those with 2–4, showing noninferiority in overall survival and other secondary endpoints. However, the difference in local tumor progression between patients with 2–4 and those with 5–10 BMs has not been sufficiently examined for this data set. Thus, the authors reappraised this issue, employing the updated JLGK0901 data set with detailed observation via enhanced MRI. They applied sophisticated statistical methods to analyze the data.

METHODS

This was a prospective observational study of 1194 patients harboring 1–10 BMs treated with GKRS alone. Patients were categorized into groups A (single BM, 455 cases), B (2–4 BMs, 531 cases), and C (5–10 BMs, 208 cases). Local tumor progression was defined as a 20% increase in the maximum diameter of the enhanced lesion as compared to its smallest documented maximum diameter on enhanced MRI. The authors compared cumulative incidence differences determined by competing risk analysis and also conducted propensity score matching.

RESULTS

Local tumor progression was observed in 212 patients (17.8% overall, groups A/B/C: 93/89/30 patients). Cumulative incidences of local tumor progression in groups A, B, and C were 15.2%, 10.6%, and 8.7% at 1 year after GKRS; 20.1%, 16.9%, and 13.5% at 3 years; and 21.4%, 17.4%, and not available at 5 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in local tumor progression between groups B and C. Local tumor progression was classified as tumor recurrence in 139 patients (groups A/B/C: 68/53/18 patients), radiation necrosis in 67 (24/31/12), and mixed/undetermined lesions in 6 (1/5/0). There were no significant differences in tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis between groups B and C. Multivariate analysis using the Fine-Gray proportional hazards model revealed age < 65 years, neurological symptoms, tumor volume ≥ 1 cm3, and prescription dose < 22 Gy to be significant poor prognostic factors for local tumor progression. In the subset of 558 case-matched patients (186 in each group), there were no significant differences between groups B and C in local tumor progression, nor in tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Local tumor progression incidences did not differ between groups B and C. This study proved that tumor progression after GKRS without whole-brain radiation therapy for patients with 5–10 BMs was satisfactorily treated with the doses prescribed according to the JLGK0901 study protocol and that results were not inferior to those in patients with a single or 2–4 BMs.

Clinical trial registration no.: UMIN000001812 (umin.ac.jp)