Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is a notable complication that causes various neurological symptoms after superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD). The authors used intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography to measure the change in microvascular transit time (MVTT) after bypass surgery. An analysis was then conducted to identify the correlation between change in MVTT and presence of postoperative HPS.
This study included 105 hemispheres of 81 patients with MMD who underwent STA-MCA single bypass surgery between January 2010 and January 2015. Intraoperative ICG videoangiography was performed before and after bypass surgery. The MVTT was calculated from the ICG time intensity curve recorded in the pial arterioles and venules. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the effect of multiple variables, including the change in MVTT after bypass surgery, on postoperative HPS.
Postoperative HPS developed in 28 (26.7%) of the 105 hemispheres operated on. MVTT was reduced significantly after bypass surgery (prebypass 5.34 ± 2.00 sec vs postbypass 4.12 ± 1.60 sec; p < 0.001). The difference between prebypass and postbypass MVTT values, defined as ΔMVTT, was significantly greater in the HPS group than in the non-HPS group (2.55 ± 2.66 sec vs 0.75 ± 1.78 sec; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff point of ΔMVTT was 2.6 seconds (sensitivity 46.4% and specificity 85.7% as a predictor of postoperative HPS). A ΔMVTT > 2.6 seconds was an independent predictor of HPS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 4.88, 95% CI 1.76–13.57; p = 0.002).
MVTT in patients with MMD was reduced significantly after bypass surgery. Patients with a ΔMVTT > 2.6 seconds tended to develop postoperative HPS. Because ΔMVTT can be easily measured during surgery, it is a useful diagnostic tool for identifying patients at high risk for HPS after STA-MCA bypass surgery for MMD.