Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: E Sander Connolly Jr x
  • By Author: Hickman, Zachary L. x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Bartosz T. Grobelny, Andrew F. Ducruet, Brad E. Zacharia, Zachary L. Hickman, Kristen N. Andersen, Eric Sussman, Austin Carpenter and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Despite the prevalence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDHs) in the rapidly growing elderly population, several aspects of disease management remain unclear. In particular, there is still conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis in patients with CSDH who undergo bur hole drainage. The authors endeavored to evaluate the efficacy of AED prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of seizures and improving outcome in this patient population.

Methods

A single surgeon's clinical database (E.S.C.) was analyzed for cases involving bur hole drainage for CSDH. Cases involving nonhemorrhagic subdural effusions as well as acute subdural hemorrhages evacuated by craniotomy were excluded from this study. Patient medical records were evaluated for relevant demographic data, medical history, imaging characteristics, clinical details of the treatment, hospital stay, and discharge summaries.

Results

The authors included 88 patients with bur hole–treated CSDH. Eleven patients (12.5%) suffered at least 1 seizure between hemorrhage onset and discharge from their treatment hospital admission. Seizures were more frequent in women than men (p = 0.030) and least frequent in patients with right-sided lesions (p = 0.030). In a multiple logistic regression model, preoperative initiation of AED prophylaxis was the only significant predictor of the lower incidence of postoperative seizures (OR 0.10, p = 0.013). However, preoperative initiation of AED prophylaxis did not significantly affect outcome at discharge.

Conclusions

The finding in this study demonstrates that preoperative AED prophylaxis likely reduces the incidence of postoperative seizures in patients with CSDH treated with bur hole drainage. A future prospective randomized study is necessary to evaluate the effect of seizure reduction on clinical outcome.

Free access

Simon G. Heuts, Samuel S. Bruce, Brad E. Zacharia, Zachary L. Hickman, Christopher P. Kellner, Eric S. Sussman, Michael M. McDowell, Rachel A. Bruce and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Large intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), compounded by perihematomal edema, can produce severe elevations of intracranial pressure (ICP). Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) with or without clot evacuation has been considered a part of the armamentarium of treatment options for these patients. The authors sought to assess the preliminary utility of DHC without evacuation for ICH in patients with supratentorial, dominant-sided lesions.

Methods

From September 2009 to May 2012, patients with ICH who were admitted to the neurological ICU at Columbia University Medical Center were prospectively enrolled in that institution's ICH Outcomes Project (ICHOP). Five patients with spontaneous supratentorial dominant-sided ICH underwent DHC without clot evacuation for recalcitrant elevated ICP. Data pertaining to the patients' characteristics and outcomes of treatment were prospectively collected.

Results

The patients' median age was 43 years (range 30–55 years) and the ICH etiology was hypertension in 4 of 5 patients, and systemic lupus erythematosus vasculitis in 1 patient. On admission, the median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 7 (range 5–9). The median ICH volume was 53 cm3 (range 28–79 cm3), and the median midline shift was 7.6 mm (range 3.0–11.3 mm). One day after surgery, the median decrease in midline shift was 2.7 mm (range 1.5–4.6 mm), and the median change in GCS score was +1 (range −3 to +5). At discharge, all patients were still alive, and the median GCS score was 10 (range 9–11), the median modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 5 (range 5–5), and the median NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score was 22 (range 17–27). Six months after hemorrhage, 1 patient had died, 2 were functionally dependent (mRS Score 4–5), and 2 were functionally independent (mRS Score 0–3). Outcomes for the patients treated with DHC were good compared with 1) outcomes for all patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH admitted during the same period (n = 144) and 2) outcomes for matched patients (dominant ICH, GCS Score 5–9, ICH volume 28–79 cm3, age < 60 years) whose cases were managed nonoperatively (n = 5).

Conclusions

Decompressive hemicraniectomy without clot evacuation appears feasible in patients with large ICH and deserves further investigation, preferably in a randomized controlled setting.

Full access

Brad E. Zacharia, Kerry A. Vaughan, Zachary L. Hickman, Samuel S. Bruce, Amanda M. Carpenter, Nils H. Petersen, Stacie Deiner, Neeraj Badjatia and E. Sander Connolly Jr

Object

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently complicated by acute hydrocephalus, necessitating emergency CSF diversion with a subset of patients, ultimately requiring long-term treatment via placement of permanent ventricular shunts. It is unclear what factors may predict the need for ventricular shunt placement in this patient population.

Methods

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective database (ICH Outcomes Project) containing patients with nontraumatic ICH admitted to the neurological ICU at Columbia University Medical Center between January 2009 and September 2011. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after ICH. The following variables were included: patient age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, temporal horn diameter on admission CT imaging, bicaudate index, admission ICH volume and location, intraventricular hemorrhage volume, Graeb score, LeRoux score, third or fourth ventricle hemorrhage, and intracranial pressure (ICP) and ventriculitis during hospital stay.

Results

Of 210 patients prospectively enrolled in the ICH Outcomes Project, 64 required emergency CSF diversion via placement of an external ventricular drain and were included in the final cohort. Thirteen of these patients underwent permanent ventricular CSF shunting prior to discharge. In univariate analysis, only thalamic hemorrhage and elevated ICP were significantly associated with the requirement for permanent CSF diversion, with p values of 0.008 and 0.033, respectively. Each remained significant in a multiple logistic regression model in which both variables were present.

Conclusions

Of patients with ICH requiring emergency CSF diversion, those with persistently elevated ICP and thalamic location of their hemorrhage are at increased odds of developing persistent hydrocephalus, necessitating permanent ventricular shunt placement. These factors may assist in predicting which patients will require permanent CSF diversion and could ultimately lead to improvements in the management of this disorder and the outcome in patients with ICH.

Restricted access

Robert M. Starke, Ricardo J. Komotar, Zachary L. Hickman, Yehuda E. Paz, Angela G. Pugliese, Marc L. Otten, Matthew C. Garrett, Mitchell S. V. Elkind, Randolph S. Marshall, Joanne R. Festa, Philip M. Meyers and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

The object of this study was to report the clinical features, surgical treatment, and long-term outcomes in adults with moyamoya phenomenon treated at a single institution in the US.

Methods

Forty-three adult patients with moyamoya disease (mean age 40 ± 11 years [SD], range 18–69 years) were treated with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS). Neurologists examined patients pre- and postoperatively. Follow-up was obtained in person or by structured telephone interview (median 41 months, range 4–126 months). The following outcomes were collected: transient ischemic attack (TIA), infarction, graft collateralization, change in cerebral perfusion, and functional level according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Kaplan-Meier estimates of infarction risk were calculated for comparison of surgically treated and contralateral hemispheres.

Results

The majority of patients were women (65%), were Caucasian (65%), presented with ischemic symptoms (98%), and had bilateral disease (86%). Nineteen patients underwent unilateral and 24 patients bilateral EDAS (67 treated hemispheres). Collateral vessels developed in 50 (98%) of 52 hemispheres for which imaging was available and there was evidence of increased perfusion on SPECT scans in 41 (82%) of the 50 hemispheres evaluated. Periprocedural infarction (< 48 hours) occurred in 3% of the hemispheres treated. In the follow-up period patients experienced 10 TIAs, 6 infarctions, and 1 intracranial hemorrhage. Although the hemisphere selected for surgery was based upon patients' symptoms and severity of pathology, the 5-year infarction-free survival rate was 94% in the surgically treated hemispheres versus < 36% in the untreated hemispheres (p = 0.007). After controlling for age and sex, infarction was 89% less likely to occur in the surgically treated hemispheres than in the contralateral hemispheres (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.56). Thirty-eight (88%) of 43 patients had preserved or improved mRS scores, relative to baseline status.

Conclusions

In this mixed-race population of North American patients, indirect bypass promoted adequate pial collateral development and increased perfusion in the majority of adult patients with moyamoya disease. Patients had low rates of postoperative TIAs, infarction, and hemorrhage, and the majority of patients had preserved or improved functional status.

Restricted access

Bartosz T. Grobelny, Andrew F. Ducruet, Peter A. DeRosa, Ivan S. Kotchetkov, Brad E. Zacharia, Zachary L. Hickman, Luis Fernandez, Reshma Narula, Jan Claassen, Kiwon Lee, Neeraj Badjatia, Stephan A. Mayer and E. Sander Connolly Jr.

Object

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is an enzyme that metabolizes homocysteine to form H2S in the brain. Hydrogen sulfide functions as a vasodilator as well as a regulator of neuronal ion channels and multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Given the myriad effects of H2S, the authors hypothesized that patients possessing gain-of-function polymorphisms of the CBS gene will experience a decreased incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

Methods

Patients were enrolled in a prospective observational database of aSAH outcomes. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and sequenced for 3 functional polymorphisms of the CBS gene (699C→T, 844ins68, and 1080C→T) by polymerase chain reaction. Serum homocysteine levels (μmol/L) were assayed. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between CBS genotype and occurrence of both angiographic vasospasm and DCI.

Results

There were 87 patients included in the study. None of the polymorphisms investigated were significantly associated with the incidence of angiographic vasospasm. However, after controlling for admission hypertension, patients with the gain-of-function 844 WT/ins genotypes were less likely to experience DCI relative to those with the 844 WT/WT genotype (86 patients, p = 0.050), while the decrease-in-function genotype 1080 TT was more likely to experience DCI relative to those with 1080 CC and CT genotypes (84 patients, p = 0.042). Serum homocysteine levels did not correlate with the extent of either angiographic vasospasm or DCI in this analysis.

Conclusions

Polymorphisms of the CBS gene that impart gain-of-function may be associated with a reduced risk of DCI after aSAH, independent of serum homocysteine. Signaling through H2S may mediate protection from DCI following aSAH through a mechanism that does not involve macrovascular vasodilation.