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  • Author or Editor: Jun-ichiro Hamada x
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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Nobuo Hashimoto and Tetsuya Tsukahara

✓ Two cases of moyamoya disease associated with repeated intraventricular hemorrhage are reported. The origin of bleeding was thought to be a distal aneurysm of the choroidal artery. The aneurysms were confirmed radiologically and histologically. The relationship between moyamoya disease and aneurysms is discussed, and a treatment proposed.

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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Shinji Nagahiro, Chikara Mimata, Takayuki Kaku and Yukitaka Ushio

✓ Two techniques of revascularizing the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) during aneurysm surgery are presented. One involves transposition of the PICA to the vertebral artery proximal to the aneurysm using a superior temporal artery (STA) as a graft. This is used in cases in which the PICA has branched off from the wall of the giant vertebral artery aneurysm. The other technique involves end-to-end anastomosis of the PICA after excision of a giant distal PICA aneurysm located at the cranial loop near the roof of the fourth ventricle. The reconstructions of the PICA described here are surgical procedures designed to preserve normal blood flow in the PICA in patients treated for giant aneurysms involving that artery.

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Takashi Kamezawa, Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Masaki Niiro, Yutaka Kai, Koichi Ishimaru and Jun-ichi Kuratsu

Object. The authors reviewed angiograms obtained in patients with cavernous malformations to identify and characterize coexisting venous drainage.

Methods. Fifty-seven patients with cavernous malformations treated at the authors' institutions between 1994 and 2002 were classified into three groups according to the venous system adjacent to the malformation on angiography studies. In Group A patients (23 patients) the malformations had no venous drainage; in Group B patients (14 patients) the lesions were associated with typical venous malformations; and in Group C patients (20 patients) the lesions had atypical venous drainage (AVD). The risk of hemorrhage based on the type of associated venous drainage was analyzed, and the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared with digital subtraction (DS) angiography in demonstrating associated AVD was determined.

Fifty-seven patients harbored 67 cavernous malformations: Group A patients had 29 cavernous malformations with no associated venous drainage; Group B patients had 17 lesions associated with venous malformations; and Group C patients harbored 21 lesions, 20 of which manifested AVD. Symptomatic hemorrhage was present in 10 (43.5%) of 23 Group A patients and in 28 (82.4%) of 34 Groups B and C patients. Although high-resolution MR imaging revealed the presence of associated venous malformations in 11 (78.6%) of 14 Group B patients, such studies demonstrated AVD in only two (10%) of 20 Group C patients.

Conclusions. Patients harboring cavernous malformations plus venous malformations or AVD are more likely to present with symptomatic hemorrhage than are patients with cavernous malformation alone. The actual incidence of associated venous drainage may be underestimated when MR imaging alone is used rather than combined with DS angiography.

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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Shigetoshi Yano, Yutaka Kai, Kazunari Koga, Motohiro Morioka, Yasuji Ishimaru and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. Of all intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), those with cortical venous drainage associated with cortical venous ectasia or varices are predisposed to an aggressive course and produce progressive neurological symptoms or hemorrhages. The authors undertook a histological examination of venous aneurysms and arterialized veins in the proximity of these aneurysms that had been surgically removed in patients with DAVFs.

Methods. Surgical specimens were obtained in eight patients. The excised venous aneurysms and the arterialized veins in their proximity were stained using hematoxylin and eosin, van Gieson's elastic, and Masson's trichrome stain. Immunostaining was also performed for alpha smooth-muscle actin, desmin, and factor VIII antigen. Five of the patients had presented with venous hypertension, and three had intracranial hemorrhages. The arterialized vein obtained in the proximity of the venous aneurysm exhibited local irregular intimal thickening; the internal elastic lamina (IEL) was grossly preserved. All venous aneurysms in patients with venous hypertension manifested medial thickening and local intimal thickening with loss of IEL; the thickness of the wall was relatively uniform. In contrast, the wall thickness of venous aneurysms in patients with hemorrhage was extremely irregular and there was no clear delineation between the media and the intima. In media with complete disappearance of IEL, there was scant muscle tissue.

Conclusions. Degenerative changes in venous aneurysms in patients with hemorrhage were much greater than in patients with venous hypertension, possibly because hemorrhages result from a more complicated interplay of anatomical, hemodynamic, and degenerative factors.

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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Yutaka Kai, Motohiro Morioka, Kiyoshi Kazekawa, Yasuji Ishimaru, Hiroo Iwata and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The authors have developed a mixture of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) and iopamidol, which is dissolved in ethanol, as an alternative solvent to provide a safe means of embolizing arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. A two-stage delivery technique is required to prevent premature precipitation in the catheter when using this material: the catheter is first infused with 30% ethanol and this is followed by the delivery of the EVAL—ethanol mixture. Acute angiographic changes were analyzed after superselective delivery of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 30% ethanol into the renal artery of rabbits. Histological changes following the embolization of the renal artery achieved using the EVAL—ethanol mixture were recorded at 1 hour and at 2 and 16 weeks after the procedure. Although DMSO always produced severe, rapidly progressive vasospasm in the renal artery during a 1- to 60-minute postinfusion, 30% ethanol did not. Microscopically, the lumens of embolized vessels examined 1 hour after embolization with EVAL—ethanol appeared to be filled with EVAL sponges, leaving almost no open spaces. The space between the EVAL sponges and the inner surface of the vessels was filled with fresh thrombus. In the vessel walls of specimens examined 2 weeks after embolization there was no or a slight inflammatory reaction. Scattered in the EVAL sponges were almost equal numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes and mononuclear cells, indicative of a mild inflammatory response. In specimens examined 16 weeks postembolization, the changes noted at 2 weeks were intensified. There was no definite histopathological evidence of mural hemorrhage, perivascular extravasation of the mixture, or perivascular hemorrhage in any specimen that was examined.

Conclusions. Although the degree of permanence of this embolization material is yet unknown, the mixture was easy to handle, and appeared safe and effective for AVM embolization. Its nonadhesive characteristic and its ability to be infused by repeated injections make it an attractive alternative to currently available materials. The good results obtained in this study led us to undertake a clinical trial, the results of which are contained in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery.

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Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Yutaka Kai, Motohiro Morioka, Kiyoshi Kazekawa, Yasuji Ishimaru, Hiroo Iwata and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. The authors report their clinical experience with their new nonadhesive liquid embolic agent, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL)/ethanol mixture, to treat arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

Methods. Between June 1995 and April 2001, 57 patients with confirmed AVMs underwent embolization of their lesions with the EVAL/ethanol mixture. In 87 procedures consisting of one to three stages, the authors embolized 185 feeding arteries to occlude as much of the AVM as possible. Repeated injections under fluoroscopic control could be performed smoothly without encountering cementing of the catheter to the vessel wall. Among the 87 embolizations undertaken in 57 patients, seven procedures (8%) in six patients produced new postembolization symptoms. Resolution of these symptoms occurred within hours or days after four of the seven procedures; permanent neurological deficits remained after the other three procedures (3.4%). Of the 57 patients, three underwent postembolization radiosurgery, and 54 underwent radical treatment with microsurgical extirpation. Histopathological examination of the 54 specimens disclosed mild inflammation within the embolized lumen without inflammatory reactions in the media or adventitia. Follow-up angiograms obtained 3 years after radiosurgery was administered showed that in all three patients treated in this fashion the nidus had completely disappeared.

Conclusions. The EVAL/ethanol mixture is handled easily and appears to be an effective and safe agent for preoperative embolization of AVMs.

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Naoki Shinojima, Masato Kochi, Jun-Ichiro Hamada, Hideo Nakamura, Shigetoshi Yano, Keishi Makino, Hiromasa Tsuiki, Kenji Tada, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Yasuji Ishimaru and Yukitaka Ushio

Object. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains incurable by conventional treatments, although some patients experience long-term survival. A younger age, a higher Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, more aggressive treatment, and long progression-free intervals have been reported to be positively associated with long-term postoperative patient survival. The aim of this retrospective study was the identification of additional favorable prognostic factors affecting long-term survival in surgically treated adult patients with supratentorial GBM.

Methods. Of 113 adult patients newly diagnosed with histologically verified supratentorial GBM who were enrolled in Phase III trials during the period between 1987 and 1998, six (5.3%) who survived for longer than 5 years were defined as long-term survivors, whereas the remaining 107 patients served as controls. All six were women and were compared with the controls; they were younger (mean age 44.2 years, range 31–60 years), and their preoperative KPS scores were higher (mean 85, range 60–100). Four of the six patients underwent gross-total resection. In five patients (83.3%) the progression-free interval was longer than 5 years and in three a histopathological diagnosis of giant cell GBM was made. This diagnosis was not made in the other 107 patients.

Conclusions. Among adult patients with supratentorial GBM, female sex and histopathological characteristics consistent with giant cell GBM may be predictive of a better survival rate, as may traditional factors (that is, younger age, good KPS score, more aggressive resection, and a long progression-free interval).