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Allen L. Ho, Anne-Mary N. Salib, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Eric S. Sussman, William J. Giardino and Casey H. Halpern

% ethanol with water until intake stabilized. Bilateral DBS leads were then implanted in either the shell or the core of the NAc, and DBS was delivered for 5 minutes prior to ethanol access and then continued for 30 minutes, during which the volume of consumption was measured. Ethanol consumption was significantly reduced with increasing intensities of DBS, but there was no significant difference in consumption between those rats receiving NAc core or shell DBS. 35 TABLE 1. Summary of animal studies of DBS for alcoholism Authors & Year Animal EtOH Procedure DBS

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Allen L. Ho, Eric S. Sussman, Arjun V. Pendharkar, Dan E. Azagury, Cara Bohon and Casey H. Halpern

obese mice. These authors also found that these stimulatory effects involved D2 receptors. 32 Moreover, the NAc is a well-validated DBS target with a good safety profile that has been exploited for treatment of such processes such as treatment-refractory depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcoholism. 27 , 58 , 70 Given the link between obesity and the mesolimbic reward circuitry, further studies targeting the NAc with DBS, specifically for treatment-refractory obesity, should be considered promising. Cost and Ethical Considerations of DBS