Anil K. Kesani, Jennifer C. Urquhart, Nathan Bedard, Pittavat Leelapattana, Fawaz Siddiqi, Kevin R. Gurr and Christopher S. Bailey
The object in this study was to determine whether the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) on admission is related to subsequent clinical outcome in terms of length of stay (LOS), complications, and mortality.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 193 patients with acute traumatic SCI who had been hospitalized at their institution between 2006 and 2012. Patients were excluded from analysis if they had insufficient SIRS data, a cauda equina injury, a previous SCI, a preexisting neurological condition, or a condition on admission that prevented appropriate neurological assessment. Complications were counted only once per patient and were considered minor if they were severe enough to warrant treatment and major if they were life threatening. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared between individuals who had 2 or more SIRS criteria (SIRS+) and those who had 0 or 1 SIRS criterion (SIRS−) at admission. Multivariate logistic regression (enter method) was used to determine the relative contribution of SIRS+ at admission in predicting the outcomes of mortality, LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital LOS, and at least one major complication during the acute hospitalization. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade and patient age were included as covariates.
Ninety-three patients were eligible for analysis. At admission 47.3% of patients had 2 or more SIRS criteria. The SIRS+ patients had higher Injury Severity Scores (24.3 ±10.6 vs 30.2 ±11.3) and a higher frequency of both at least one major complication during acute hospitalization (26.5% vs 50.0%) and a fracture-dislocation pattern of injury (26.5% vs 59.1%) than the SIRS− patients (p < 0.05 for each comparison). The SIRS+ patients had a longer median hospital stay (14 vs 18 days) and longer median ICU stay (0 vs 5 days). However, mortality was not different between the groups. Having SIRS on admission predicted an ICU LOS > 10 days, hospital LOS > 25 days, and at least one complication during the acute hospitalization.
A protocol to identify SCI patients with SIRS at admission may be beneficial with respect to preventing adverse outcomes and decreasing hospital costs.
Ingrid Radovanovic, Jennifer C. Urquhart, Parham Rasoulinejad, Kevin R. Gurr, Fawaz Siddiqi and Christopher S. Bailey
Previous studies have focused on Type II odontoid fractures and have failed to report on the effect of other C-2 fracture types on treatment and outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics, cause of injury, predisposing factors to fracture, treatments, and mortality rates among C-2 fracture types in a cohort of elderly patients 70 years of age and older.
A retrospective cohort study design was used. Patients who sustained a C-2 fracture between 2002 and 2011 and who were admitted to the authors’ Level 1 trauma center were identified using the Discharge Abstract Database and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code S12.1. Fractures were classified as odontoid Type I, II, or III; hangman’s; C-2 complex (hangman’s appearance on sagittal images, Type III odontoid on coronal cuts); and other (miscellaneous). Age, sex, predisposing factors to falls, cause of injury, treatment, presence of autofusion in the subaxial cervical spine, and mortality rates were compared between fracture patterns.
One hundred forty-one patients were included; their mean age was 82 years. Fractures included Type II odontoid (57%), complex (19%), Type III odontoid (11%), hangman’s (8%), and other (5%). Falls from a standing height accounted for 47% of injuries, and 65% of patients had ≥ 3 risk factors for falls. Subaxial autofusion was more common in odontoid fractures (p = 0.002). Treatment was mainly nonoperative (p < 0.0001). The 1-year mortality rate was 27%. Four patients died of spinal cord injury.
Although not as common as Type II odontoid fractures, other C-2 fractures including hangman’s, complex, and Type III odontoid fractures accounted for close to half of the injuries in the study cohort. There were few differences between the fracture types with respect to cause of injury, predisposing factors, or mortality rate. However, surgical treatment was more common for Type II odontoid fractures.
Ingrid Radovanovic, Jennifer C. Urquhart, Venkat Ganapathy, Fawaz Siddiqi, Kevin R. Gurr, Stewart I. Bailey and Christopher S. Bailey
The object of this study was to determine the association between postoperative sagittal spinopelvic alignment and patient-rated outcome measures following decompression and fusion for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis.
The authors identified a consecutive series of patients who had undergone surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis between 2008 and 2012, with an average follow-up of 3 years (range 1–6 years). Surgery was performed to address the clinical symptoms of spinal stenosis, not global sagittal alignment. Sagittal alignment was only assessed postoperatively. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on a postoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) < 50 mm (well aligned) or ≥ 50 mm (poorly aligned). Baseline demographic, procedure, and outcome measures were compared between the groups. Postoperative outcome measures and postoperative spinopelvic parameters were compared between groups using analysis of covariance.
Of the 84 patients included in this study, 46.4% had an SVA < 50 mm. Multiple levels of spondylolisthesis (p = 0.044), spondylolisthesis at the L3–4 level (p = 0.046), and multiple levels treated with fusion (p = 0.028) were more common among patients in the group with an SVA ≥ 50 mm. Patients with an SVA ≥ 50 mm had a worse SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score (p = 0.018), a worse Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; p = 0.043), and more back pain (p = 0.039) than those with an SVA < 50 mm after controlling for multiple levels of spondylolisthesis and multilevel fusion. The spinopelvic parameters differing between the < 50-mm and ≥ 50-mm groups included lumbar lordosis (LL; 56.4° ± 4.7° vs 49.8° ± 4.3°, respectively, p = 0.040) and LL < pelvic incidence ± 9° (51% vs 23.1%, respectively, p = 0.013) after controlling for type of surgical procedure.
Data in this study revealed that patient-rated outcome is influenced by the overall postoperative sagittal balance as defined by the SVA.