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  • Author or Editor: Antonio A. F. De Salles x
  • By Author: Gorgulho, Alessandra x
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Alessandra Gorgulho, Antonio A. F. De Salles, Leonardo Frighetto and Eric Behnke

Object. The goal of this study was to analyze the incidence of intracranial bleeding in patients who underwent procedures guided by microelectrode recording (MER) rather than by macroelectrode stimulation alone.

Methods. Between March 1994 and July 2001, 178 patients underwent 248 functional neurosurgical procedures performed by the same team at the University of California at Los Angeles. The procedures included pallidotomy (122 patients), thalamotomy (19 patients), and implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (36 patients), globus pallidus internus (17 patients), and ventralis intermedius nucleus (54 patients). One hundred forty-four procedures involved macroelectrode stimulation and 104 involved MER. Groups were analyzed according to the presence of arterial hypertension, MER or macroelectrode stimulation use, and occurrence of hemorrhage. Nineteen patients with arterial hypertension underwent 28 surgical procedures.

Five cases of hemorrhage (2.02%) occurred. One patient presented with hemiparesis and dysphasia but no surgery was required. The incidence of hemorrhage in patients in whom MER was performed was 2.9%, whereas the incidence in patients in whom MER was not used was 1.4% (p = 0.6529). Bleeding occurred in 10.71% of patients with hypertension and 0.91% of those who were nonhypertensive (p = 0.0111). Among the 104 patients in whom MER was performed, 12 had hypertension. Bleeding occurred in two (16.67%) of these 12 patients. An increased incidence of bleeding in hypertensive patients who underwent MER (p = 0.034) was noticed when compared with nonhypertensive patients who underwent MER. A higher number of electrode passes through the parenchyma was observed when MER was used (p = 0.0001). A positive trend between the occurrence of hemorrhage and multiple passes was noticed.

Conclusions. Based on the data the authors suggest that a higher incidence of hemorrhage occurs in hypertensive patients, and a higher incidence as well in hypertensive patients who underwent MER rather than macroeletrode stimulation. Special attention should be given to MER use in hypertensive patients and particular attention should be made to multiple passes.

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Carlos A. Mattozo, Antonio A. F. De Salles, Ivan A. Klement, Alessandra Gorgulho, David McArthur, Judith M. Ford, Nzhde Agazaryan, Daniel F. Kelly and Michael T. Selch

Object

The authors analyzed the results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for the treatment of recurrent meningiomas that were described at initial resection as showing aggressive, atypical, or malignant features (nonbenign).

Methods

Twenty-five patients who underwent SRS and/or SRT for nonbenign meningiomas between December 1992 and August 2004 were included. Thirteen of these patients underwent treatment for multiple primary or recurrent lesions. In all, 52 tumors were treated. All histological sections were reviewed and reclassified according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 guidelines as benign (Grade I), atypical (Grade II), or anaplastic (Grade III) meningiomas. The median follow-up period was 42 months.

Seventeen (68%) of the cases were reclassified as follows: WHO Grade I (five cases), Grade II (11 cases), and Grade III (one case). Malignant progression occurred in eight cases (32%) during the follow-up period; these cases were considered as a separate group. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the Grades I, II, and III, and malignant progression groups were 100, 83, 0, and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). In the Grade II group, the 3-year PFS rates for patients treated with SRS and SRT were 100 and 33%, respectively (p = 0.1). After initial treatment, 22 new tumors required treatment using SRS or SRT; 17 (77%) of them occurred inside the original resection cavity. Symptomatic edema developed in one patient (4%).

Conclusions

Stereotactic radiation treatment provided effective local control of “aggressive” Grade I and Grade II meningiomas, whereas Grade III lesions were associated with poor outcome. The outcome of cases in the malignant progression group was intermediate between that of the Grade II and Grade III groups, with the lesions showing a tendency toward malignancy.

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Alessandra Gorgulho, Catherine Juillard, Daniel Z. Uslan, Katayoun Tajik, Poorang Aurasteh, Eric Behnke, David Pegues and Antonio A. F. De Salles

Object

Risk factors for deep brain stimulator (DBS) infection are poorly defined. Because DBS implants are not frequently performed in the MR imaging–equipped operating room (OR), no specific data about infection of DBS implants performed in the MR imaging environment are available in the literature. In this study the authors focus on the incidence of infection in patients undergoing surgery in the conventional versus MR imaging–equipped OR.

Methods

To identify cases of DBS-associated infection, the authors performed a retrospective cohort study with nested case-control analysis of all patients undergoing DBS implantation at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center. Cases of DBS infection were identified using standardized clinical and microbiological criteria.

Results

Between January 1998 and September 2003, 228 DBSs were implanted. Forty-seven operations (20.6%) were performed in the conventional OR and 181 (79.4%) in the MR imaging–equipped OR. There was definite infection in 13 cases (5.7%) and possible infection in 7 cases (3%), for an overall infection rate of 8.7% (20 of 228 cases). There was no significant difference in infection rates in the conventional (7 [14.89%] of 47) versus MR imaging–equipped OR (13 [7.18%] of 181) (p = 0.7). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 62% of cases. Twelve of 13 confirmed cases underwent complete hardware removal. On case-control analysis, younger age (≤ 58.5 years) was a significant predictor of DBS infection (odds ratio 3.4, p = 0.027)

Conclusions

Infection is a serious complication of DBS implantation and commonly requires device removal for cure. The authors found that DBS implantation can be safely performed in MR imaging–equipped suites, possibly allowing improved lead placement. Young age was associated with an increased risk of DBS infection.