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  • Author or Editor: Mark Bernstein x
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Mark Bernstein, Robert A. Hegele, Fred Gentili, Michael Brothers, Richard Holgate, William C. Sturtridge and John Deck

✓ The authors report a case of pituitary apoplexy resulting in bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, with marked depression of consciousness and hemiplegia. After transsphenoidal tumor decompression, restoration of flow in both carotid arteries was documented angiographically and the patient made an excellent clinical recovery. The unique aspect of this case is that the pituitary apoplexy was apparently precipitated by neuroendocrine manipulation, performed as a preoperative test of pituitary function.

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R. Loch Macdonald, Michael G. Fehlings, Charles H. Tator, Andres Lozano, J. Ross Fleming, Fred Gentili, Mark Bernstein, M. Chris Wallace and Ronald R. Tasker

✓ This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of multilevel anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization using fibular allograft in patients with cervical myelopathy. Thirty-six patients underwent this procedure for cervical myelopathy caused by spondylosis (20 patients), ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (four patients), trauma (one patient), or a combination of lesions (11 patients). The mean age (± standard deviation) of the patients was 58 ± 10 years and 30 of the patients were men. The mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 30 ± 6 months and 11 patients had undergone previous surgery. Prior to surgery, the mean Nurick grade of the myelopathy was 3.1 ± 1.4. Seventeen patients also had cervicobrachial pain. Four vertebrae were removed in six patients, three in 19, and two in 11 patients. Instrumentation was used in 15 cases. The operative mortality rate was 3% (one patient) and two patients died 2 months postoperatively. Postoperative complications included early graft displacement requiring reoperation (three patients), transient dysphagia (two patients), cerebrospinal fluid leak treated by lumbar drainage (three patients), myocardial infarction (two patients), and late graft fracture (one patient). One patient developed transient worsening of myelopathy and three developed new, temporary radiculopathies. All patients achieved stable bone union and the mean Nurick grade at an average of 31 6 20 months (range 0–79 months) postoperatively was 2.4 ± 1.6 (p < 0.05, t-test). Cervicobrachial pain improved in 10 (59%) of the 17 patients who had preoperative pain and myelopathy improved at least one grade in 17 patients (47%; p < 0.05). Twenty-six surviving patients (72%) were followed for more than 24 months and stable, osseous union occurred in 97%. These results show that extensive, multilevel anterior decompression and stabilization using fibular allograft can be achieved with a perioperative mortality and major morbidity rate of 22% and with significant improvement in pain and myelopathy.

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Shobhan Vachhrajani, Charbel Fawaz, David Mathieu, Cynthia Ménard, Michael D. Cusimano, Fred Gentili, Mojgan Hodaie, Brendan Kenny, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Normand Laperriere, Michael Schwartz, May Tsao and Mark Bernstein


Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is used to treat benign and malignant brain tumors, arteriovenous malformations, trigeminal neuralgia, and other conditions. Patients experience reduced neurological morbidity from GKS compared with open microneurosurgery, but risks of radiation injury and technical limitations persist. The authors report treatment complications from the early experience of 2 Canadian GKS programs in Toronto and Sherbrooke.


In Toronto, a prospective administrative database was searched for adverse events and incomplete treatment administrations. In Sherbrooke, data were acquired by chart review. Patients were accrued until August 1, 2007, and a total of 973 patients were included in this report.


During the radiosurgical procedure, 19 patients (2%) suffered anxiety or syncopal episodes, and 2 patients suffered acute coronary events. Treatments were incompletely administered in 12 patients (1.2%). Severe pain was a delayed complication: 8 patients suffered unexpected headaches, and 9 patients developed severe facial pain. New motor deficits developed in 11 patients, including edema-induced ataxia in 4 and one case of facial weakness after treatment of a vestibular schwannoma. Four patients required shunt placement for symptomatic hydrocephalus, and 16 patients suffered delayed seizures.


Gamma Knife surgery is a minimally invasive treatment modality for many intracranial diseases. Treatment is not risk free, and some patients will develop complications; these are likely to decrease as institutional experience matures. Expanding availability and indications necessitate discussion of these risks with patients considering treatment.