✓ Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder that usually arises in lymph nodes, most commonly in the mediastinum. The authors report the clinical and pathological features of three patients with localized Castleman's disease of the leptomeninges. There were two women, aged 63 and 82 years, and one 25-year-old man. Two patients had progressive focal motor seizures of 3 and 24 months' duration, and the third patient presented acutely with generalized seizures. The clinical diagnosis was meningioma in each case, based on computerized tomography scans, cerebral arteriography, and the operative findings. All three lesions arose in the leptomeninges, compressed the underlying cerebral cortex, and infiltrated the overlying dura to a variable extent. Surgical excision of the tumor resulted in marked clinical improvement in all three patients. Histologically, two cases were classified as the hyaline-vascular type and one as the plasma cell type. Immunohistochemical stains of the latter case revealed a monoclonal population of mature plasma cells. Only a few scattered polyclonal plasma cells were seen in the other two cases. The authors conclude that Castleman's disease involving the leptomeninges is a rare disorder that may mimic meningioma clinically and radiographically.
Report of three cases
Gregory S. Severson, Douglas S. Harrington, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Rodney D. McComb, John H. Casey, Benjamin R. Gelber, B. Varet, R. Abelanet and Henry H. Rappaport
Samuel Smith, Lyal G. Leibrock, Benjamin R. Gelber and Eric W. Pierson
✓ Three cases of acute disc herniation causing cauda equina compression syndrome after chemonucleolysis are described. All three patients had myelographic blocks and, despite emergency decompression procedures, were left with residual neurological deficits. Recommendations are made regarding evaluation and therapeutic intervention, and possible etiologies of this problem are reviewed.
Benjamin R. Gelber and Thoralf M. Sundt Jr.
✓ Ten patients with intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms were managed by combining ICA ligation with an extracranial to intracranial bypass procedure. Nine of these grafts were proven patent by angiogram. One patient was unable to return for postoperative angiograms; his graft had appeared patent on physical examination. Seven aneurysms were intracavernous, two were giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, and one aneurysm was at the intracranial bifurcation of the ICA. Despite occlusion cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements of 20 ml/100 gm/min or less in six patients, only one patient was unable to tolerate ICA ligation. Three patients developed transient aphasia, but there were no permanent neurological deficits associated with the carotid occlusion. Seven patients had improvement in pre-existing extraocular palsies or visual field defects. Others remained stable.
The combination of an extracranial to intracranial microvascular bypass procedure with ICA ligation seems to be an effective method of treatment for aneurysms near the base of the skull that cannot be obliterated by a direct intracranial approach. The addition of the bypass procedure permits ICA ligation in patients who would not otherwise have tolerated occlusion of that vessel. Intraoperative xenon CBF measurements are an important adjunct to the operation.