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  • Author or Editor: Rudolf Fahlbusch x
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Rudolf Fahlbusch, Oliver Ganslandt, Michael Buchfelder, Werner Schott and Christopher Nimsky

Object. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can increase the efficacy of transsphenoidal microsurgery, primarily in non—hormone-secreting intra- and suprasellar pituitary macroadenomas.

Methods. Intraoperative imaging was performed using a 0.2-tesla MR imager, which was located in a specially designed operating room. The patient was placed supine on the sliding table of the MR imager, with the head placed near the 5-gauss line. A standard flexible coil was placed around the patient's forehead. Microsurgery was performed using MR-compatible instruments. Image acquisition was started after the sliding table had been moved into the center of the magnet. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images each required over 8 minutes to acquire, and T2-weighted images were obtained optionally. To assess the reliability of intraoperative evaluation of tumor resection, the intraoperative findings were compared with those on conventional postoperative 1.5-tesla MR images, which were obtained 2 to 3 months after surgery.

Among 44 patients with large intra- and suprasellar pituitary adenomas that were mainly hormonally inactive, intraoperative MR imaging allowed an ultra-early evaluation of tumor resection in 73% of cases; such an evaluation is normally only possible 2 to 3 months after surgery. A second intraoperative examination of 24 patients for suspected tumor remnants led to additional resection in 15 patients (34%).

Conclusions. Intraoperative MR imaging undoubtedly offers the option of a second look within the same surgical procedure, if incomplete tumor resection is suspected. Thus, the rate of procedures during which complete tumor removal is achieved can be improved. Furthermore, additional treatments for those patients in whom tumor removal was incomplete can be planned at an early stage, namely just after surgery.

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Andreas Stadlbauer, Ewald Moser, Stephan Gruber, Christopher Nimsky, Rudolf Fahlbusch and Oliver Ganslandt

Object. It is often difficult to delineate the extent of invasion of high- and low-grade gliomas into normal brain tissue by using conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Knowledge of the relationship between the tumor infiltration zone and normal brain, however, is one of the prerequisites for performing as radical a tumor resection as possible. Proton MR spectroscopy allows noninvasive measurements of the concentrations and spatial distributions of brain metabolites and, therefore, may provide biochemical information in vivo, that is useful in distinguishing pathological from normal areas of the brain.

The authors have developed a method to use the properties of MR spectroscopy to investigate intraoperatively pathological changes in the spatial distribution of choline (Cho)-containing compounds, total creatine, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in brain tumors with the aid of frameless stereotaxy.

Methods. Maps of the Cho/NAA ratio were calculated and automatic segmentation of the tumors was performed. Spectroscopic images of the segmented tumor were matched to an anatomical three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging set by applying a fully automated mutual-information algorithm. The resulting 3D MR image can be used subsequently for neurosurgical planning, transfer to a frameless stereotactic system, and display in the navigation microscope during surgery leading to 1H-MR spectroscopy-guided navigation.

Conclusions. This method may allow better intraoperative identification of tumor border zones based on metabolic changes due to tumor infiltration.

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Oliver Ganslandt, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Christopher Nimsky, Helmut Kober, Martin Möller, Ralf Steinmeier, Johann Romstöck and Jürgen Vieth

The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical outcome in 50 patients with lesions around the motor cortex who underwent surgery in which functional neuronavigation was performed.

The sensorimotor cortex was identified in all patients with the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The MEG-source localizations were superimposed onto a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image, and the image data set was then implemented into a neuronavigation system. Based on this setup, the surgeon chose the best surgical strategy. During surgery, the pre- and postcentral gyrus were identified by neuronavigation, and in addition, the central sulcus was localized using intraoperative recording of somatosensory evoked potentials. In all cases MEG localizations of the sensory or motor cortex were correct. In 30% of the patients preoperative paresis improved, in 66% no additional deficits occurred, and in only 4% (two patients) deterioration of neurological function occurred. In one of these patients the deterioration was not related to the method.

The method of incorporating functional data into neuronavigation systems is a promising tool that can be used in more radical surgery to cause less morbidity around eloquent brain areas.

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Oliver Ganslandt, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Christopher Nimsky, Helmut Kober, Martin Möller, Ralf Steinmeier, Johann Romstöck and Jürgen Vieth

Object. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical outcome in 50 patients with lesions around the motor cortex who underwent surgery in which functional neuronavigation was performed.

Methods. The sensorimotor cortex was identified in all patients with the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The MEG-source localizations were superimposed onto a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image and the image data set was implemented into a neuronavigation system. Based on this setup, the surgeon chose the best surgical strategy. During surgery, the pre- and postcentral gyri were identified by neuronavigation and, in addition, the central sulcus was localized using intraoperative recording of somatosensory evoked potentials. In all cases MEG localizations of the sensory or motor cortex were correct. In 30% of the patients preoperative paresis improved, in 66% no additional deficits occurred, and in only 4% (two patients) deterioration of neurological function occurred. In one of these patients the deterioration was not related to the procedure.

Conclusions. The method of incorporating functional data into neuronavigation systems is a promising tool that can be used in more radical surgery to lessen morbidity around eloquent brain areas.