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Neil S. Patel, Matthew L. Carlson, Bruce E. Pollock, Colin L. W. Driscoll, Brian A. Neff, Robert L. Foote, Christine M. Lohse and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

The morbidity of gross-total resection of jugular paraganglioma (JP) is often unacceptable due to the potential for irreversible lower cranial neuropathy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used at the authors’ institution since 1990 for the treatment of JP and other benign intracranial tumors. Conventional means of assessing tumor progression using linear measurements or elliptical approximations are imprecise due to the irregular shape and insinuating growth pattern of JP. The objective of this study was to assess long-term tumor control in these patients by using slice-by-slice 3D volumetric segmentation of serial MRI data.

METHODS

Radiographic data and clinical records were reviewed retrospectively at a single, tertiary-care academic referral center for patients treated from 1990 to 2017. Volumetric analyses by integration of consecutive tumor cross-sectional areas (tumor segmentation) of serial MRI data were performed. Tumor progression was defined as volumetric growth of 15% or greater over the imaging interval. Primary outcomes analyzed included survival free of radiographic and clinical progression. Secondary outcomes included new or worsened cranial neuropathy.

RESULTS

A total of 85 patients were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for JP at the authors’ institution over the last 27 years. Sixty patients had pretreatment and serial posttreatment contrast-enhanced MRI follow-up suitable for volumetric analysis. A total of 214 MR images were analyzed to segment tumor images in a slice-by-slice fashion to calculate integral tumor volume. The median follow-up duration was 66 months (range 7–202 months). At 5 years the tumor progression-free survival rate was 98%. Three tumors exhibited progression more than 10 years after GKRS. Estimated survival free of radiographic progression rates (95% confidence interval [CI]; n = number still at risk) at 5, 10, and 15 years following radiosurgery were 98% (95% CI 94%–100%; n = 34), 94% (95% CI 85%–100%; n = 16), and 74% (95% CI 56%–98%; n = 6), respectively. One patient with tumor progression required treatment intervention using external beam radiation therapy, constituting the only case of clinical progression. Two patients (3%) without preexisting lower cranial nerve dysfunction developed new ipsilateral vocal fold paralysis following radiosurgery.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS achieves excellent long-term tumor control for JP without a high risk for new or worsened cranial neuropathy when used in primary, combined modality, or recurrent settings. Long-term follow-up is critical due to the potential for late radiographic progression (i.e., more than 10 years after SRS). As none of the patients with late progression have required salvage therapy, the clinical implications of this degree of tumor growth have yet to be determined.

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Lucas P. Carlstrom, Jeffrey T. Jacob, Christopher S. Graffeo, Avital Perry, Michael S. Oldenburg, Robert L. Foote, Bruce E. Pollock, Colin L. Driscoll, Matthew L. Carlson and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

Radiation dose to the cochlea has been proposed as a key prognostic factor in hearing preservation following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS). However, understanding of the predictive value of cochlear dose on hearing outcomes following SRS for patients with non-VS tumors of the lateral skull base (LSB) is incomplete. The authors investigated rates of hearing loss following high-dose SRS in patients with LSB non-VS lesions compared with patients with VS.

METHODS

Patients with LSB meningioma or jugular paraganglioma and serviceable pretreatment hearing who underwent SRS treatment during 2007–2016 and received a modiolus dose > 5 Gy were included in a retrospective cohort study, along with a similarly identified control group of consecutive patients with sporadic VS.

RESULTS

Sixteen patients with non-VS tumors and a control group of 43 patients with VS met study criteria. Serviceable hearing, defined as American Academy of Otololaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery class A/B, was maintained in 13 non-VS versus 23 VS patients (81% vs 56%, p = 0.07). All 3 instances of hearing loss in non-VS patients were observed in cerebellopontine angle (CPA) meningiomas. Non-VS with preserved hearing had a median modiolus dose of 6.9 Gy (range 5.7–19.2 Gy), versus 7.4 Gy (range 5.4–7.6 Gy) in those patients with post-SRS hearing loss (p = 0.53). Sporadic VS patients received an overall median modiolus point-dose of 6.8 Gy (range 5.4–11.7 Gy).

CONCLUSIONS

The modiolus dose threshold of 5 Gy does not predict hearing loss in patients with non-VS tumors undergoing SRS, suggesting that dosimetric parameters derived from VS may not be applicable to this population. Differential rates of hearing loss appear to vary by pathology, with paragangliomas and petroclival meningiomas demonstrating decreased risk of hearing loss compared to CPA meningiomas that may directly compress the cochlear nerve similarly to VS.

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Neil S. Patel, Matthew L. Carlson, Bruce E. Pollock, Colin L. W. Driscoll, Brian A. Neff, Robert L. Foote, Christine M. Lohse and Michael J. Link

OBJECTIVE

The morbidity of gross-total resection of jugular paraganglioma (JP) is often unacceptable due to the potential for irreversible lower cranial neuropathy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used at the authors’ institution since 1990 for the treatment of JP and other benign intracranial tumors. Conventional means of assessing tumor progression using linear measurements or elliptical approximations are imprecise due to the irregular shape and insinuating growth pattern of JP. The objective of this study was to assess long-term tumor control in these patients by using slice-by-slice 3D volumetric segmentation of serial MRI data.

METHODS

Radiographic data and clinical records were reviewed retrospectively at a single, tertiary-care academic referral center for patients treated from 1990 to 2017. Volumetric analyses by integration of consecutive tumor cross-sectional areas (tumor segmentation) of serial MRI data were performed. Tumor progression was defined as volumetric growth of 15% or greater over the imaging interval. Primary outcomes analyzed included survival free of radiographic and clinical progression. Secondary outcomes included new or worsened cranial neuropathy.

RESULTS

A total of 85 patients were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for JP at the authors’ institution over the last 27 years. Sixty patients had pretreatment and serial posttreatment contrast-enhanced MRI follow-up suitable for volumetric analysis. A total of 214 MR images were analyzed to segment tumor images in a slice-by-slice fashion to calculate integral tumor volume. The median follow-up duration was 66 months (range 7–202 months). At 5 years the tumor progression-free survival rate was 98%. Three tumors exhibited progression more than 10 years after GKRS. Estimated survival free of radiographic progression rates (95% confidence interval [CI]; n = number still at risk) at 5, 10, and 15 years following radiosurgery were 98% (95% CI 94%–100%; n = 34), 94% (95% CI 85%–100%; n = 16), and 74% (95% CI 56%–98%; n = 6), respectively. One patient with tumor progression required treatment intervention using external beam radiation therapy, constituting the only case of clinical progression. Two patients (3%) without preexisting lower cranial nerve dysfunction developed new ipsilateral vocal fold paralysis following radiosurgery.

CONCLUSIONS

SRS achieves excellent long-term tumor control for JP without a high risk for new or worsened cranial neuropathy when used in primary, combined modality, or recurrent settings. Long-term follow-up is critical due to the potential for late radiographic progression (i.e., more than 10 years after SRS). As none of the patients with late progression have required salvage therapy, the clinical implications of this degree of tumor growth have yet to be determined.