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Robert Fahed, Frédéric Clarençon, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Dorian Chauvet, Lise Le Jean, Jacques Chiras and Federico Di Maria

One of the procedural risks in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolization is possible migration of the embolic agent into the venous drainage with an incomplete nidus occlusion, which may lead to severe hemorrhagic complications.

This report presents the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a deep intraparenchymal hematoma on the left side secondary to the spontaneous rupture of a claustral AVM. Upon resorption of the hematoma, the patient underwent an initial therapeutic session of N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate endovascular embolization, with the purpose of reducing the AVM volume and flow before performing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. After glue injection into one of the arterial feeders, the control angiography showed a partial migration of the glue cast into the straight sinus, with most of the nidus still visible. Because of the bleeding risk due to possible venous hypertension, it was decided to try to retrieve the glue from the vein by using a stent retriever via jugular access. This maneuver allowed a nearly complete removal of the glue cast, thereby restoring normal venous flow drainage. The patient showed no clinical worsening after the procedure.

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of the use of the Solitaire FR device as a rescue glue retriever. This method should be considered by physicians in cases of unintended glue migration into the venous circulation during AVM embolization.

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Joseph Gabrieli, Frédéric Clarençon, Federico Di Maria, Robert Fahed, Anne-Laure Boch, Vincent Degos, Jacques Chiras and Nader-Antoine Sourour

Intracranial aneurysms are relatively frequently encountered in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). They may be located on the circle of Willis, on arterial feeders, or even inside the nidus. Because BAVM-associated aneurysms represent a risk factor of bleeding, the question of the timing and modality of their management remains a matter of debate in unruptured BAVMs. The authors present a case of fatal periprocedural rupture of a flow-related aneurysm (FRA) during the removal of the microcatheter after injection of a liquid embolic agent. A 40-year-old man was treated at the authors' institution for the management of a Spetzler-Martin Grade III left unruptured frontal BAVM, revealed by seizures and a focal neurological deficit attributed to flow steal phenomenon. After a multidisciplinary meeting, endovascular treatment was considered to reduce the flow of the BAVM. A proximal FRA located on the feeding internal carotid artery (ICA) was purposely left untreated because it did not meet the criteria of the authors' institution for preventative treatment (i.e., small size [2.5 mm]). During embolization, at the time of microcatheter retrieval, and after glue injection, the aneurysm unexpectedly ruptured. The aneurysm's rupture was attributed to the stress (torsion/flexion) on the ICA caused by the microcatheter removal. Despite the attempts to manage the bleeding, the patient eventually died of the acute increase of intracranial pressure related to the massive subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case highlights a previously unreported mechanism of FRA rupture during BAVM embolization: the stress transmitted to the parent artery during the removal of the microcatheter.

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Robert Fahed, Federico Di Maria, Charlotte Rosso, Nader Sourour, Vincent Degos, Sandrine Deltour, Flore Baronnet-Chauvet, Anne Léger, Sophie Crozier, Joseph Gabrieli, Yves Samson, Jacques Chiras and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

Contrary to acute ischemic stroke involving the anterior circulation, no randomized trial has yet demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of endovascular management in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Recently developed thrombectomy devices, such as stentrievers and aspiration systems, have helped in improving the endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke. The authors sought to assess the impact of these devices in the endovascular treatment of acute BAO.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of 34 consecutive patients treated in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital for acute BAO was carried out. All patients had undergone an endovascular procedure. In addition to the global results in terms of safety and effectiveness (recanalization rate and 3-month clinical outcome based on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]), the authors aimed to determine if the patients treated with the most recently developed devices (i.e., the Solitaire stentriever or the ADAPT catheter) had better angiographic and clinical outcomes than those treated with older endovascular strategies.

RESULTS

The overall successful recanalization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b–3) was 50% (17 of 34 patients). A good clinical outcome (mRS score 0–2 at 3-month follow-up) was achieved in 11 (32.3%) of 34 patients. The mortality rate at 3-month follow-up was 29.4% (10 of 34 patients). Patients treated with the Solitaire stentriever and the ADAPT catheter had a higher recanalization rate (12 [92.3%] of 13 patients vs 5 [23.8%] of 21 patients, p = 0.0002) and a shorter mean (± SD) procedure duration (88 ± 31 minutes vs 126 ± 58 minutes, p = 0.04) than patients treated with older devices.

CONCLUSIONS

The latest devices have improved the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy in acute BAO. Their use in further studies may help demonstrate a benefit in the endovascular management of acute BAO.