✓ The results of cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of a central neurocytoma are presented. Central neurocytomas are intriguing neoplasms that exhibit primarily neuronal, but also glial characteristics, which indicate an origin from a pluripotential neuroglial precursor. The authors describe an intraventricular neurocytoma in an 11-year-old boy that showed anaplastic features with widespread necrosis and mitoses, as well as extensive calcification and foci that exhibited marked neuronal differentiation with clusters of ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed prominent synaptophysin and neurofilament positivity and focal glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity. Electron microscopy revealed abundant neuritic processes with microtubules and dense core granules as well as mature ganglion cells. Flow cytometry studies revealed increased S (7.8%) and G2M (9.7%) phase components. Molecular and cytogenetic studies were undertaken to assess whether there were similarities to two other tumor types that exhibit neuronal differentiation, the neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. Polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed no evidence of amplification of the MYCN oncogene or chromosome 1p deletion, which are common in neuroblastomas. Chromosomal analysis by G banding revealed a complex karyotype, with counts in the near-diploidy range (45–48). Two chromosomes 1 appeared normal on G banding and FISH analysis, with p58 signals present on the distal p arm of both chromosomes 1; however, three additional copies of distal 1q were present in rearrangements with 4 and 7. Although the histological findings indicate a kinship to the neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma, the central neurocytoma appears to have a different karyotypic profile, although more cases need to be assessed using molecular genetic analysis.