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Yuzuru Tashiro, Shushovan Chakrabortty, James M. Drake and Toshiaki Hattori

Hydrocephalus Twenty adult male Wistar rats, each weighing between 200 and 250 g, were anesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of chloral hydrate (28 mg/100 g body weight) and immobilized in a stereotactic frame with the neck flexed. A posterior midline incision was made, with the aid of an operating microscope, at the craniocervical junction to expose the atlantooccipital dura. Using a 27-gauge needle, a 0.05-ml volume of 25% kaolin solution (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) was manually injected into the cisterna magna via caudal puncture to prevent retrograde leakage of the

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Ibrahim H. Al-Ahmed, Mohamed Boughamoura, Peter Dirks, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James T. Rutka and James M. Drake

N eurenteric cysts are endodermal or enterogenic cysts that are considered to be rare endotheliumlined structures. 18 They have been classified into 3 types. The simpler forms (Type 1) are thin walled, with a layer of stratified or a pseudostratified cuboidal or columnar epithelium on a basement membrane. More complex varieties are less common and have additional mesodermal elements such as smooth muscle and fat (Type 2) and sometimes also ependymal or glial tissue (Type 3). Neurenteric cysts appear to be exceptionally rare at the craniocervical junction

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Arnold H. Menezes

achondroplasia: the possible role of intracranial venous hypertension . J Neurosurg 71 : 42 – 48 , 1989 15 Wang H , Rosenbaum AE , Reid CS , Zinreich SJ , Pyeritz RE : Pediatric patients with achondroplasia: CT evaluation of the craniocervical junction . Radiology 164 : 515 – 519 , 1987 16 Yamada H , Nakamura S , Tajima M , Kageyama N : Neurological manifestations of pediatric achondroplasia . J Neurosurg 54 : 49 – 57 , 1981

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Patrick A. Lo, James M. Drake, Douglas Hedden, Pradeep Narotam and Peter B. Dirks

, however, the infection remains superficial and amenable to medical therapy. Other complications include pin loosening (8–20%) 17 and pressure areas (1–11%). 2 Rare instances of intracranial abscesses have been reported. 8, 10, 18 Nonetheless, the use of external immobilization would avoid the sequelae of surgical fusion, which may be quite significant 13, 14 in growing children. Because of anatomical differences, 5–7, 11 the forces exerted at the craniocervical junction in children during trauma are significantly different from those in a similar event affecting

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Andrew Jea, Michael D. Taylor, Peter B. Dirks, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James T. Rutka and James M. Drake

screw. ‡ Complicated by VA injury. Surgical Technique All patients were placed prone with the head and cervical spine maintained in the neutral position using a halo vest. Neurophysiological monitoring was performed during the entire course of the intubation and positioning phases of the procedure to ensure there were no changes in motor evoked potentials from baseline signals. The posterior upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction were exposed in the usual manner. The posterior arch of C-1 was identified and followed laterally to visualize the lateral