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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and Bruce E. Pollock

and are not included in our calculations. The clinical characteristics of the remaining 38 patients (14 boys and 24 girls) are outlined in Table 1 . The median patient age was 15 years (range 7–18 years). Of note, only three patients (8%) were younger than 9 years of age. A radiosurgery-based AVM score was calculated for each patient according to the following formula: AVM score = (0.1 × volume [cm 3 ]) + (0.02 × age [years]) + (0.3 × location [frontal/temporal = 0; parietal/occipital/corpus callosum/cerebellar = 1; basal ganglia/thalamus/brainstem = 2]). 20 The

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Michael Bliss

based on primary sources. American surgeons need a fuller understanding of both Halsted the surgeon and Halsted the man, and this waits upon someone being willing to study both Halsted's surgical writings (the 2-volume edition of his Surgical Papers is very handy 1 ) and whatever personal records can be found at Johns Hopkins and in other archives. We already know that more can be said about Halsted's addiction: in 1969 Osler's notes on Halsted's condition were published, indicating that he had broken his cocaine addiction by switching to morphine. Osler was not

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Zachary A. Seymour and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

used for gynecological cancers. 18 The unit used by Cushing, milligram hours (written in this paper as “mg/h”), is a historical unit established in the treatment of gynecological tumors by Forsell and other Swedish radiation specialists. 28 Conversion to a modern and recognizable unit is complex. Even with details provided in Cushing's notes, a truly accurate assessment is improbable, because the unit corresponds to the amount of radiation emitted by the radium and not the dose that reaches the tissues. An accurate estimate requires knowledge of the volume of the

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Charles G. Kulwin and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

A coustic neuromas (or VSs) are one of the more technically challenging neurosurgical lesions to remove as exemplified by the well-demonstrated career-long learning curve in VS surgery. 6 , 23 There is a long-recognized difference in outcome between low- and high-volume surgical centers. 31 Giant VSs, greater than 4–5 cm in greatest extracanalicular diameter, 12 carry their own unique risks for resection. Tumor size has been repeatedly shown to correlate with patient outcome, including postoperative cranial nerve and brainstem function. 11 Higher

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Brandon C. Lane and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

excitation with light at 465–490 nm wavelengths. In practice, this results in yellowish-green fluorescence that can be detected by videoangiography or by the observer's naked eye, at low and high intravenous doses, respectively. Pharmacokinetically, fluorescein distributes well into the interstitial space, with an estimated volume of distribution of 0.5 L/kg. Approximately 20–30 seconds after a bolus peripheral venous administration, fluorescein can be observed in the cerebral circulation. Fluorescein metabolism is primarily achieved through conversion to fluorescein

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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and Dennis D. Spencer

He proposed that the increased scalp vascularity, increased size of the carotid artery, and cardiac hypertrophy observed in some patients with AVMs is related to the increase in blood volume due to the high flow through the arteriovenous fistula. 3 The relatively high epileptogenic propensity of vascular malformations was thought to be related to the proximity of these lesions to the paracentral lobule. Monopolar electrocautery offered Cushing a minimal efficacy in resection of vascular malformations. This mode of electrocoagulation failed to provide homeostasis

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Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Michael Westerveld, Juan Alvarez-Carilles and Dennis D. Spencer

volume asymmetry in patients who underwent right and left temporal lobectomies; this supports the value of the Wada test and MR imaging volumetry in the lateralization of the seizure focus. Although the disparity scores were correlated, those researchers did not observe a direct correlation between individual Wada memory scores and corresponding hippocampal volumes on MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between these two measures of hippocampal integrity in a larger group of patients to determine the efficacy of the Wada test in

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Cormac O. Maher, Steven R. Buchman, Edward O'Hara and Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

were in their infancy at this time and the methods of blood transfusion were rudimentary, children with limited blood volume were especially at risk in such operations, which often involved significant blood loss due to manipulations of the adjacent dural sinuses. Controversy surrounding the use of craniotomies delayed further development in the surgical management of craniosynostosis until the early 1920s when Mehner in 1921 advocated the use of simple extirpation of the synostosed suture and successfully used strip craniectomy to remove a fused suture. 2 , 6 At

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Jesse D. Lawrence, Chad Tuchek, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and Raymond F. Sekula Jr.

moderate to high volume of MVD operations. It is reported that complication rates correlate inversely with high-volume hospitals and high-volume surgeons. 10 Low-volume hospitals and low-volume surgeons may have significantly different complication rates. It should be noted that an assumption of this study was that patient stays and care in the PACU were comparable between institutions. Second, it must be taken into consideration that the majority of patients reviewed in this study who had an ICU stay had a date of surgery prior to the one for the patients without an

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Prayash Patel, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Frederick Boop and Paul Klimo Jr.

were 5 female patients (42%) and 7 male patients (58%) with a mean age of 9 years (range 2–19 years). Nine patients (75%) were Caucasian, 2 (17%) were African American, and 1 (8%) was of Asian descent. The mean follow-up duration for patients was 16 months (range 6–34 months). TABLE 1: Summary of 12 patients who underwent the expanded transforaminal approach to the third ventricle * Case No. Age (yrs), Sex Presenting Signs & Symptoms Hydrocephalus on Presentation Tumor Type & Origin Estimated Tumor Volume (cm 3