Hydrocephalus results from abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes or flow patterns. The absorption of CSF is determined largely by pressures within veins and venous sinuses in the head and adjacent to the spine. Most surgical solutions for hydrocephalus involve diversion of excess CSF into alternative absorption sites, and most of these solutions are still suboptimal. The focus of this work has been to recreate more normal CSF absorption into the dural venous sinuses without having to directly access the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).
Intraosseous skull infusion for the purpose of accessing the SSS and the systemic venous system was tested by experimental skull infusions of tracer fluids into living large animals (14 adult pigs).
Compared with control injections into an ear vein, infusions into the skull through specially designed infusion devices had similar systemic absorption characteristics. This suggested that intraosseous skull infusion in a living large animal was successful in gaining access to the SSS and systemic venous system.
This study constitutes the first demonstration of the success of intraosseous skull infusion in gaining rapid access to the systemic venous system and it thus opens the possibility of using this strategy for diversion of CSF back into the intracranial venous system for the treatment of hydrocephalus.