Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor, and it carries an extremely poor prognosis. Attempts to develop targeted therapies have been hindered because the blood-brain barrier prevents many drugs from reaching tumors cells. Furthermore, systemic toxicity of drugs often limits their therapeutic potential. A number of alternative methods of delivery have been developed, one of which is convection-enhanced delivery (CED), the focus of this review. The authors describe CED as a therapeutic measure and review preclinical studies and the most prominent clinical trials of CED in the treatment of glioblastoma. The utilization of this technique for the delivery of a variety of agents is covered, and its shortcomings and challenges are discussed in detail.
Arman Jahangiri, Aaron T. Chin, Patrick M. Flanigan, Rebecca Chen, Krystof Bankiewicz and Manish K. Aghi
Martin J. Rutkowski, Ryan M. Alward, Rebecca Chen, Jeffrey Wagner, Arman Jahangiri, Derek G. Southwell, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins, Han Lee and Manish K. Aghi
In 2004, the WHO classified atypical pituitary adenoma as a distinct adenoma subtype. However, the clinical significance of this distinction remains undetermined. The authors sought to define patient characteristics, tumor features, and treatment outcomes associated with atypical pituitary adenoma.
The authors reviewed records of patients who underwent resection of pituitary adenoma at the University of California, San Francisco, between 2007 and 2014. Per institutional protocol, adenomas exhibiting mitotic activity underwent evaluation for all 3 markers of atypicality (mitotic index, extensive p53 staining, and MIB-1 index ≥ 3%). Statistical analyses were performed using χ2, Fisher’s exact test, t-test, log-rank, and logistic regression.
Between 2007 and 2014, 701 patients underwent resection for pituitary adenoma. Among these patients, 122 adenomas exhibited mitotic activity and therefore were evaluated for all 3 markers of atypicality, with 36 tumors (5%) proving to be atypical. There were 21 female patients (58%) and 15 male patients (42%) in the atypical cohort, and 313 female patients (47%) and 352 male patients (53%) in the nonatypical cohort (p = 0.231). The mean age of patients in the atypical cohort was 37 years (range 10–65 years), which was significantly lower than the mean age of 49 years (range 10–93 years) for patients in the nonatypical cohort (p < 0.001). The most common presenting symptoms for patients with atypical adenomas were headaches (42%) and visual changes (33%). Atypical adenomas were more likely to be functional (78%) than nonatypical adenomas (42%; p < 0.001). Functional atypical adenomas were significantly larger than functional nonatypical adenomas (mean diameter 2.2 vs 1.4 cm; p = 0.009), as were nonfunctional atypical adenomas compared with nonfunctional nonatypical adenomas (mean diameter 3.3 vs 2.3 cm; p = 0.01). Among the entire adenoma cohort, larger presenting tumor size was associated with cavernous sinus invasion (p < 0.001), and subtotal resection was associated with cavernous sinus invasion (p < 0.001) and larger size (p < 0.001) on binomial multivariate regression. The median time until recurrence was 56 months for atypical adenomas, 129 months for functional nonatypical adenomas, and 204 months for nonfunctional nonatypical adenomas (p < 0.001). Functional atypical adenomas recurred more frequently and significantly earlier than functional nonatypical adenomas (p < 0.001). When accounting for extent of resection, cavernous sinus invasion, size, age, sex, and functional subtype, atypicality remained a significant predictor of earlier recurrence among functional adenomas (p = 0.002).
When compared with nonatypical pituitary adenomas, atypical adenomas are more likely to present in younger patients at a larger size, are more often hormonally hypersecretory, and are associated with earlier recurrence. These features lend credence to atypical pituitary adenomas being a distinct clinical entity in addition to a discrete pathological diagnosis.
Arman Jahangiri, Jeffrey R. Wagner, Sung Won Han, Mai T. Tran, Liane M. Miller, Rebecca Chen, Maxwell W. Tom, Lauren R. Ostling, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis Blevins and Manish K. Aghi
The impact of transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFAs) on preoperative hypopituitarism relative to the incidence of new postoperative endocrine deficits remains unclear. The authors investigated rates of hypopituitarism resolution and development after transsphenoidal surgery.
Over a 5-year period, 305 transsphenoidal surgeries for NFAs performed at The California Center for Pituitary Disorders were retrospectively reviewed.
Patients with preoperative endocrine deficits (n = 153, 50%) were significantly older (mean age 60 vs 54 years; p = 0.004), more frequently male (65% vs 44%; p = 0.0005), and had larger adenomas (2.4 cm vs 2.1 cm; p = 0.02) than patients without preoperative deficits (n = 152, 50%). Of patients with preoperative endocrine deficits, 53% exhibited symptoms. Preoperative deficit rates were 26% for the thyroid axis; 20% and 16% for the male and female reproductive axes, respectively; 13% for the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol axis, and 19% for the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis. Laboratory normalization rates 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery without hormone replacement were 26% and 36% for male and 13% and 13% for female reproductive axes, respectively; 30% and 49% for the thyroid axis; 3% and 3% for the cortisol axis; and 9% and 22% for the IGF-1 axis (p < 0.05). New postoperative endocrine deficits occurred in 42 patients (13.7%). Rates of new deficits by axes were: male reproductive 3% (n = 9), female reproductive 1% (n = 4), thyroid axis 3% (n = 10), cortisol axis 6% (n = 19), and GH/IGF-1 axis 4% (n = 12). Patients who failed to exhibit any endocrine normalization had lower preoperative gland volumes than those who did not (0.24 cm3 vs 0.43 cm3, respectively; p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that no variables predicted new postoperative deficits or normalization of the female reproductive, cortisol, and IGF-1 axes. However, increased preoperative gland volume and younger age predicted the chances of a patient with any preoperative deficit experiencing normalization of at least 1 axis. Younger age and less severe preoperative hormonal deficit predicted normalization of the thyroid and male reproductive axes (p < 0.05).
After NFA resection, endocrine normalization rates in this study varied with the hormonal axis and were greater than the incidence of new endocrine deficits. Low preoperative gland volume precluded recovery. Patient age and the severity of the deficiency influenced the recovery of the thyroid and male reproductive axes, the most commonly impaired axes and most likely to normalize postoperatively. This information can be of use in counseling patients with hypopituitarism who undergo NFA surgery.