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Mohamad Bydon, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos and Ziya L. Gokaslan

disease progression: one case of osteosarcoma and another of Ewing's sarcoma. Among the surviving 8 patients, 7 patients emptied their bladder via catheterization and 1 by manually applying pressure to the abdomen. All patients experienced varying degrees of constipation, but none required a colostomy. At last follow-up, 6 of the 8 surviving patients were able to walk without any assistive devices, and 2 required external support. The 5-year overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 70%. The work presented herein has inherent merits, and the authors should be

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Y. Raja Rampersaud

itself. However, multiple scans are not without risk due to radiation exposure to the patient and increased operative time. I would be critical that the authors did not discuss any change in their clinical protocols or propose a consensus practice at their institution going forward as result of this study. The authors also did not discuss the potential use of adjunctive technologies to improve on their screw revision rate and/or postoperative revision rate. As I am a published proponent of using intraoperative imaging devices combined with navigation technologies

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Mohamad Bydon, Harry Cloft and Giuseppe Lanzino

cerebrovascular diseases traditionally treated with EC-IC bypass. First, the results of the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) were published and suggested that EC-IC bypass, in addition to the best medical therapy, did not reduce the risk of future ischemic events in patients with symptomatic carotid occlusive disease (COD). 10 Second, the FDA approved the use of flow-diversion devices for the treatment of supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The effect of these events on the utilization of EC-IC bypass, and the degree to which relative indications for

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Redab Alkhataybeh, Waseem Wahood, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sandy Goncalves, M. Hassan Murad and Mohamad Bydon

reported by the previous systematic review was 3.74% 20 compared to 6% found in this current paper for both approaches combined. Again, the higher rate of reoperation may be attributed more to the standalone approach (8%) than the combined approach (3%) as reported in this paper. These results appear to suggest that while adding posterior instrumentation to lateral fusion might result in slightly less pain relief, it significantly reduces the risk of subsidence and reoperation. It is worth reporting here that none of the devices being currently utilized for lateral

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Mohamad Bydon, Vance Fredrickson, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Yiping Li, Ronald A. Lehman Jr., Gregory R. Trost and Ziya L. Gokaslan

managed with a short period of bed rest with or without an orthosis; weight bearing is progressively increased afterward. Sometimes, an external fixation device may be used for the anterior portion of the pelvic ring. Fractures occurring below S-2 rarely cause instability, and immediate operative management is not routinely indicated even in the presence of neurological deficits. 14 Fractures at this level often result in complete nerve root transection, and there are multiple innervations to the bowel and bladder; therefore, early operative exploration

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Benjamin F. Mundell, Marcus J. Gates, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Brett A. Freedman, Ahmad Nassr, Samuel F. Hohmann and Mohamad Bydon

during the initial hospitalization. In one study, the authors (Ortega et al.) did look at 18-month costs following inpatient and outpatient interspinous process decompression device placement for lumbar stenosis and found that cost differences were negligible. 19 Due to this discrepancy in cost reporting, 2 meta-analysis models were run: one with initial costs and one including 18-month costs from Ortega et al. The cost difference remained regardless of the cost data used. Fig. 7. Forest plot for comparison of costs between inpatient and outpatient spine surgery. The

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Lorenzo Rinaldo, Brandon A. McCutcheon, Meghan E. Murphy, Daniel L. Shepherd, Patrick R. Maloney, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohamad Bydon and Giuseppe Lanzino

-acquired Clostridium difficile colitis; iatrogenic pneumothorax; infection/inflammation due to internal device, implant, or graft; in-hospital stroke; manifestations of poor glycemic control; perioperative pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis; perioperative superficial hemorrhage or hematoma; postoperative infection; postoperative metabolic derangement; postoperative respiratory failure; postoperative sepsis; postoperative shock; postoperative wound dehiscence; and transfusion reaction. In addition, we searched for patients who experienced an in-hospital intracerebral

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Mohamad Bydon, Risheng Xu, Kyriakos Papademetriou, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham, Ziya L. Gokaslan, George Jallo and Ali Bydon

: Complications of lumbar spinal fusion with transpedicular instrumentation . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 17 : 6 Suppl S184 – S189 , 1992 11 Eggers G , Klein J , Blank J , Hassfeld S : Piezosurgery: an ultrasound device for cutting bone and its use and limitations in maxillofacial surgery . Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 42 : 451 – 453 , 2004 12 Eismont FJ , Wiesel SW , Rothman RH : Treatment of dural tears associated with spinal surgery . J Bone Joint Surg Am 63 : 1132 – 1136 , 1981 13 Farhat HI , Elhammady MS , Levi AD , Aziz-Sultan MA

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Matthew J. McGirt, Mohamad Bydon, Kristin R. Archer, Clinton J. Devin, Silky Chotai, Scott L. Parker, Hui Nian, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Theodore Speroff, Robert S. Dittus, Sharon E. Philips, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kevin T. Foley and Anthony L. Asher

(7) Dominant symptom (%) 7618  Back dominant 1538 (20)  Leg dominant 2662 (35)  Back = leg * 3418 (45) Motor deficit (%) 7607  Yes 2115 (28)  No 5492 (72) Symptom duration (%) 7555  <3 mos 916 (12)  >3 mos 6639 (88) Compensation (%) 7513  Yes 291 (4)  No 7222 (96) Liability (%) 7461  Yes 349 (5)  No 7112 (95) Insurance (%) 7601  Uninsured 84 (1)  Medicare 2777 (37)  Medicaid 316 (4)  Veterans Affairs/government 182 (2)  Private 4242 (55) Ambulation (%) 6994  Independent 5990 (85)  With an assist device 960 (14)  Nonambulatory 44 (1) Occupation (%) 7589  Sedentary

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Kaya Bilguvar, Mohamad Bydon, Fatih Bayrakli, A. Gulhan Ercan-Sencicek, Yasar Bayri, Christopher Mason, Michael L. DiLuna, Margretta Seashore, Richard Bronen, Richard P. Lifton, Matthew State and Murat Gunel

, which span all nonrepetitive regions of the human genome with a median probe spacing of 6000 bp. Patient DNA was cohybridized with pooled control DNA to determine copy number differences (deletions or amplifications) across the entire genome. Array Data Analysis All arrays were scanned using the GenePix 4000B scanner (Molecular Devices Corp.) and were normalized using qspline 15 within the NimbleScan software package (NimbleGen Systems, Inc.). These normalized intensities were then analyzed using the circular binary segmentation algorithm 10 to determine the