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Charles H. Crawford III, Leah Y. Carreon, Mohamad Bydon, Anthony L. Asher and Steven D. Glassman

Grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis occurring from a congenital deformity of the pars interarticularis or from a degenerative process associated w/spinal canal &/or foraminal stenosis that results in mechanical back pain &/or radiating leg pain or neurogenic claudication in the distribution of the affected nerve roots; lumbar spondylolisthesis can be identified by either MRI or CT w/an anterior or posterior slip of an adjacent vertebral body by no more than 25%; patients w/a slip > 25%, Grades II, III, & IV spondylolisthesis are not included Lumbar stenosis Degenerative

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Mohammed Adeeb Sebai, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Jang Won Yoon, Robert J. Spinner and Mohamad Bydon

lesions, large tumors with extradural extension, or adjacent bone erosion may necessitate wider bone removal (e.g., total facetectomy) to allow for adequate tumor exposure. In such cases, concomitant arthrodesis might be indicated in order to prevent postoperative complications, including instability, deformity, pain, and neurological deficit. 1 The majority of current studies have focused on the outcomes of patients undergoing spinal PNST resection without making a clear distinction among different procedure types. 12 , 20 , 23 , 29 Therefore, literature regarding

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Mohammed Ali Alvi, Redab Alkhataybeh, Waseem Wahood, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Sandy Goncalves, M. Hassan Murad and Mohamad Bydon

.38 levels per patient for the TPP group. Patient demographics and characteristics of included studies are shown in Table 3 . Various outcomes have been summarized in Supplemental Tables 1–3 . TABLE 3. Demographics and characteristics of included studies Authors & Year Country Study Design Sample Size No. of Levels Females (%) Mean Age (yrs) Mean BMI (kg/m 2 ) Mean FU Included Deformity Pts? TP  Ahmadian et al., 2015 USA & Australia Retrospective 59 96 61 59 NA 14.6 mos Yes  Bouthors et al., 2015 France Retrospective 60 74 NA NA NA 19 mos Yes  Essig et al., 2014 USA

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Anshit Goyal, Che Ngufor, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Brandon McCutcheon, Curtis Storlie and Mohamad Bydon

. TABLE 5. Published studies on predictive modeling using machine learning for spine surgical outcomes Authors & Year Data Source No. of Pts Training & Validation Method Procedure Outcome of Interest Technique Employed Kuo et al., 2018 Single-institutional 532 10-fold cross validation Spinal fusion Costs during hospital admission Naïve Bayesian, SVMs, logistic regression, C4.5 decision tree, RF Passias et al., 2018 Multi-institutional 101 Not reported Cervical deformity correction Distal junctional kyphosis RF algorithm Watad et al., 2018 Single-institutional 30 70

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Mohamed Macki, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Ashley A. Murgatroyd, Kenneth P. Mullinix, Xiaolei Sun, Bryan W. Cunningham, Brandon A. McCutcheon, Mohamad Bydon and Ziya L. Gokaslan

and Ferguson, who used the Galveston L-rod to correct scoliotic deformities. 1 In the technical note, it was demonstrated that following a total sacrectomy, a pedicular, segmental fixation of the lumbar spine can communicate with the ilia together with a Galveston L-rod. This bilateral liaison between the lumbar spine and the pelvis is completely independent of any sacral fixation points. As lumbopelvic fixation techniques and theories continue to develop, further understanding in terms of their comparative biomechanical properties is necessary. Although the goal

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Mohamad Bydon, Risheng Xu, David Santiago-Dieppa, Mohamed Macki, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Timothy F. Witham

stenosis and single-level degenerative disc disease: a randomized controlled trial comparing decompression with decompression and instrumented fusion . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32 : 1375 – 1380 , 2007 19 Harrop JS , Youssef JA , Maltenfort M , Vorwald P , Jabbour P , Bono CM , : Lumbar adjacent segment degeneration and disease after arthrodesis and total disc arthroplasty . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33 : 1701 – 1707 , 2008 20 Heary RF , Karimi RJ : Correction of lumbar coronal plane deformity using unilateral cage placement . Neurosurg

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Mohamad Bydon, David R. Santiago-Dieppa, Lee Hwang, Gregory McLoughlin, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Timothy Witham

undergoing posterior approaches, lumbar surgery, and of instrumentation-augmented procedures. 5 , 13 , 28 Patients in whom infections develop typically have worse pain-related outcomes, increased deformity, higher medical costs, and longer hospital stays. 5 , 13 , 28 The ability to identify patients with the greatest risk of developing postoperative spinal infections may therefore lead to more selective ways of minimizing infection. Studies on postoperative spinal infections following instrumented lumbar fusion surgery are few and limited ( Table 1 ). 11 , 29 , 30 , 45

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Mohamad Bydon, Risheng Xu, Anubhav G. Amin, Mohamed Macki, Paul Kaloostian, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Timothy F. Witham

, Ramesh P , Shetty AP : Randomized clinical study to compare the accuracy of navigated and non-navigated thoracic pedicle screws in deformity correction surgeries . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32 : E56 – E64 , 2007 32 Rampersaud YR , Simon DA , Foley KT : Accuracy requirements for image-guided spinal pedicle screw placement . Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 26 : 352 – 359 , 2001 33 Rao G , Brodke DS , Rondina M , Dailey AT : Comparison of computerized tomography and direct visualization in thoracic pedicle screw placement . J Neurosurg 97 : 2

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Mohamad Bydon, Joseph A. Lin, Rafael de la Garza-Ramos, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Ali Bydon

may benefit from fusion if they also have facet disease, multilevel degenerative disc disease, sagittal deformity, spondylolisthesis, or iatrogenic instability due to the decompression. 35 , 40 In determining whether a fusion is warranted, preoperative flexion-extension radiographs may be helpful in revealing occult mechanical instability ( Fig. 4 ). 24 Additionally, extensive drilling of the facet joints intraoperatively may result in iatrogenic instability. Several studies have shown that resection of more than 50% of the facet joint is associated with

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Anthony L. Asher, Clinton J. Devin, Brandon McCutcheon, Silky Chotai, Kristin R. Archer, Hui Nian, Frank E. Harrell Jr., Matthew McGirt, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Kevin Foley, Steven D. Glassman and Mohamad Bydon

Criteria Patients undergoing lumbar surgery performed for primary stenosis, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, symptomatic mechanical disc collapse, and revision surgery, including recurrent same-level disc herniation and adjacent-segment disease, who had at least 12 months of follow-up, were eligible for inclusion. Exclusions included spinal infection, tumor, fracture, traumatic dislocation, deformity, pseudoarthrosis, same-level recurrent multilevel stenosis, pseudarthrosis, same-level recurrent multilevel stenosis, neurological paralysis due to preexisting spinal