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  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine x
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Patricia Zadnik, Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Mari L. Groves, Camilo Molina, Christopher Jackson, Edward McCarthy, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Ali Bydon, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F. Witham and Daniel M. Sciubba

palliative, merely slowing the progression of impairment and relieving pain, and patient outcome is dependent on the preintervention level of functioning. 26 , 27 Animal models are needed to study what governs metastatic progression and to investigate novel interventions in a preclinical environment. A variety of animal models have emerged in the study of spinal metastasis, in which techniques ranging from intracardiac injection to orthotopic human bone implants to direct intraosseous injections have been used. 7 , 12 , 18 , 19 , 25 , 30 , 32 , 34 In our group, we have

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Camilo A. Molina, Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Timothy F. Witham, Ali Bydon, Jean-Paul Wolinsky and Daniel M. Sciubba

of rhBMPs. Conclusions In an animal model of metastatic spine disease utilizing an intravertebral implantation of rat breast adenocarcinoma, the local administration of rhBMP-2 (15 μg, 10 μl of 1.5-mg/ml solution) resulted in a neurological and survival advantage in comparison with animals that did not receive the same treatment. Although results are specific to the model utilized, this is the first preclinical study demonstrating that the local administration of rhBMP-2 on a tumor bed may actually decrease tumor growth, suggesting that patients undergoing

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Matthew J. McGirt, Beril Gok, Starane Shepherd, Joseph Noggle, Giannina L. Garcés Ambrossi, Ali Bydon and Ziya L. Gokaslan

compression and ischemic injury from MESCC. Hyperglycemia has been shown to potentiate ischemic damage after CNS injury by quenching important vasodilators, potentiating lactate accumulation, worsening tissue acidosis, and increasing free radical–induced reperfusion injury. 11 , 14 , 18 , 26 , 31 Furthermore, studies of ischemic SCI have suggested that induced hypoglycemia attenuates ischemic SCI. 35 , 37 However, the effect of hyperglycemia on spinal cord compression remains unknown. In the present study, we use an established animal model of metastatic spinal tumors

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Scott L. Parker, Anubhav G. Amin, S. Harrison Farber, Matthew J. McGirt, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Ali Bydon, Ziya L. Gokaslan and Timothy F. Witham

misidentification of approximately one-half of all medial breaches. With a specificity of 99.9%, however, any stimulation below this threshold must be immediately evaluated, because it most likely represents a misplaced screw. Because of its poor sensitivity, even at high thresholds, EMG monitoring should not be used as a screening tool to detect potential breaches. There is a growing body of evidence on the role of intraoperative EMG monitoring in determining lumbar pedicle screw malpositioning. Using an animal model, Lenke and cowokers 12 established normative stimulation