Theodore H. Schwartz, Brian Ho, Charles J. Prestigiacomo, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Neil A. Feldstein and Robert R. Goodman
Object. Ventricular size often shows no obvious change following third ventriculostomy, particularly in the early postoperative period, making postoperative evaluation difficult without expensive and often invasive testing in patients with equivocal clinical responses. The authors hypothesized that performing careful volumetric measurements would show decreases in size within the first 3 weeks after surgery.
Methods. Volumetric measurements were calculated from standard 3 × 3—mm axial computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained immediately before and 3 and 21 days after surgery. Two independent investigators measured third ventricular volume in a series of 16 patients and lateral ventricular volume in 10 of the patients undergoing stereotactically guided endoscopic third ventriculostomy for noncommunicating hydrocephalus.
Fifteen patients were symptomatically improved at the time the follow-up scan was obtained. Third ventricular volume decreased in all patients by a mean of 35% (range 7.8–95.1%) and lateral ventricular volume decreased in all patients by a mean of 33% (range 4.5–80.3%). The degree of change correlated with the length of preoperative symptoms (p <0.005). The one patient who experienced no improvement showed no decrease in third ventricular volume. In seven of 10 patients, the decrease in third ventricular volume exceeded the decrease in lateral ventricular volume. Repeated measurements indicated that the 95% confidence interval for the authors' calculations varied around the mean by 2.5% for third ventricular volume and 1.2% for lateral ventricular volume. Long-term outcome was excellent, with only one case of delayed failure. The mean follow-up duration was 12 months.
Conclusions. Volumetric measurements calculated from standard CT scans will show a demonstrable decrease in ventricular volume soon after successful third ventriculostomy and can be helpful in assessing patients postoperatively. Although the third ventricle may exhibit a greater decrease, the lateral ventricular measurements are more accurate. Patients with more indolent symptoms show the smallest change.
Timothy H. Ung, Christopher Kellner, Justin A. Neira, Shih-Hsiu J. Wang, Randy D’Amico, Phyllis L. Faust, Peter Canoll, Neil A. Feldstein and Jeffrey N. Bruce
Intravenous administration of fluorescein sodium fluoresces glioma burden tissue and can be visualized using the surgical microscope with a specialized filter. Intraoperative guidance afforded through the use of fluorescein may enhance the fidelity of tissue sampling, and increase the ability to accomplish complete resection of tectal lesions. In this report the authors present the case of a 19-year-old man with a tectal anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma in which the use of fluorescein sodium and a Zeiss Pentero surgical microscope equipped with a yellow 560 filter enabled safe complete resection. In conjunction with neurosurgical navigation, added intraoperative guidance provided by fluorescein may be beneficial in the resection of brainstem gliomas.
Todd C. Hankinson, Alfred T. Ogden, Peter Canoll, James H. Garvin, Michael Kazim, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Neil A. Feldstein and Richard C. E. Anderson
✓ Soft-tissue glomus tumors (or glomangiomas) are unrelated to neuroendocrine paragangliomas (glomus tympanicum, jugulare, and vagale). The authors present the first reported case of an orbital soft-tissue glomus tumor in a child. An 8-year-old girl developed rapidly progressive right-eye blindness, proptosis, and a sixth cranial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a homogeneously enhancing lesion extending from the right orbit through the superior orbital fissure to the cavernous sinus and middle cranial fossa. A biopsy specimen demonstrated the lesion to be a soft-tissue glomus tumor. Following angiography and embolization, a gross-total resection of the tumor was achieved. The patient was treated with adjuvant proton-beam radiotherapy. At 24 months follow-up her proptosis and sixth cranial nerve palsy had resolved and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence.
Richard C. E. Anderson, Benjamin Kennedy, Candix L. Yanes, James Garvin, Michael Needle, Peter Canoll, Neil A. Feldstein and Jeffrey N. Bruce
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for the treatment of malignant gliomas is a technique that can deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly into the tumor and the surrounding interstitium through sustained, low-grade positive-pressure infusion. This allows for high local concentrations of drug within the tumor while minimizing systemic levels that often lead to dose-limiting toxicity. Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are universally fatal childhood tumors for which there is currently no effective treatment. In this report the authors describe CED of the topoisomerase inhibitor topotecan for the treatment of DIPG in 2 children.
As part of a pilot feasibility study, the authors treated 2 pediatric patients with DIPG. Stereotactic biopsy with frozen section confirmation of glial tumor was followed by placement of bilateral catheters for CED of topotecan during the same procedure. The first patient underwent CED 210 days after initial diagnosis, after radiation therapy and at the time of tumor recurrence, with a total dose of 0.403 mg in 6.04 ml over 100 hours. Her Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score was 60 before CED and 50 posttreatment. Serial MRI initially demonstrated a modest reduction in tumor size and edema, but the tumor progressed and the patient died 49 days after treatment. The second patient was treated 24 days after the initial diagnosis prior to radiation with a total dose of 0.284 mg in 5.30 ml over 100 hours. Her KPS score was 70 before CED and 50 posttreatment. Serial MRI similarly demonstrated an initial modest reduction in tumor size. The patient subsequently underwent fractionated radiation therapy, but the tumor progressed and she died 120 days after treatment.
Topotecan delivered by prolonged CED into the brainstem in children with DIPG is technically feasible. In both patients, high infusion rates (> 0.12 ml/hr) and high infusion volumes (> 2.8 ml) resulted in new neurological deficits and reduction in the KPS score, but lower infusion rates (< 0.04 ml/hr) were well tolerated. While serial MRI showed moderate treatment effect, CED did not prolong survival in these 2 patients. More studies are needed to improve patient selection and determine the optimal flow rates for CED of chemotherapeutic agents into DIPG to maximize safety and efficacy. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00324844.