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  • Author or Editor: Gary L. Gallia x
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Ajay Mantha, Federico G. Legnani, Carlos A. Bagley, Gary L. Gallia, Ira Garonzik, Gustavo Pradilla, Eric Amundson, Betty M. Tyler, Henry Brem and Ziya L. Gokaslan

Object. Although metastatic spinal disease constitutes a significant percentage of all spinal column tumors, an accessible and reproducible animal model has not been reported. In this study the authors describe the technique for creating an intraosseous spinal tumor model in rats and present a functional and histological analysis.

Methods. Eighteen female Fischer 344 rats were randomized into two groups. Group 1 animals underwent a transabdominal exposure and implantation of CRL-1666 breast adenocarcinoma into the L-6 vertebral body (VB). Animals in Group 2 underwent a sham operation. Hindlimb function was tested daily by using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale. Sixteen days after tumor implantation, animals were killed and their spines were removed for histological assessment. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

By Day 15 functional analysis showed a significant decrease in motor function in Group 1 animals (median functional score 2 of 21) compared with Group 2 rats (median functional score 21 of 21) (p = 0.0217). The onset of paraparesis in Group 1 occurred within 14 to 16 days of surgery. Histopathological analysis showed tumor proliferation through the VB and into the spinal canal, with marked osteolytic activity and spinal cord compression.

Conclusions. Analysis of these findings demonstrates the consistency of tumor growth in this model and validates the utility of functional testing for onset of paresis. This new rat model allows for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic treatments for patients harboring metastatic spine disease.

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Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Patricia Zadnik, Jon D. Weingart, Alessandro Olivi, Gary L. Gallia, Jaishri Blakeley, Michael Lim, Henry Brem and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa


Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults. These tumors recur regardless of intervention. This propensity to recur despite aggressive therapies has made many perceive that repeated resections have little utility. The goal of this study was to evaluate if patients who underwent repeat resections experienced improved survival as compared with patients with fewer numbers of resections, and whether the number of resections was an independent predictor of prolonged survival.


The records of adult patients who underwent surgery for an intracranial primary glioblastoma at an academic tertiary-care institution between 1997 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate proportionalhazards regression analysis was used to identify an association between glioblastoma resection number and survival after controlling for factors known to be associated with survival, such as age, functional status, periventricular location, extent of resection, and adjuvant therapy. Survival as a function of time was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival rates were compared using log-rank analysis.


Five hundred seventy-eight patients with primary glioblastoma met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. At last follow-up, 354, 168, 41, and 15 patients underwent 1, 2, 3, or 4 resections, respectively. The median survival for patients who underwent 1, 2, 3, and 4 resections was 6.8, 15.5, 22.4, and 26.6 months (p < 0.05), respectively. In multivariate analysis, patients who underwent only 1 resection experienced shortened survival (relative risk [RR] 3.400, 95% CI 2.423–4.774; p < 0.0001) as compared with patients who underwent 2 (RR 0.688, 95% CI 0.525–0.898; p = 0.0006), 3 (RR 0.614, 95% CI 0.388–0.929; p = 0.02), or 4 (RR 0.600, 95% CI 0.238–0.853; p = 0.01) resections. These results were verified in a case-control evaluation, controlling for age, neurological function, periventricular tumor location, extent of resection, and adjuvant therapy. Patients who underwent 1, 2, or 3 resections had a median survival of 4.5, 16.2, and 24.4 months, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, the risk of infections or iatrogenic deficits did not increase with repeated resections in this patient population (p > 0.05).


Patients with glioblastoma will inevitably experience tumor recurrence. The present study shows that patients with recurrent glioblastoma can have improved survival with repeated resections. The findings of this study, however, may be limited by an intrinsic bias associated with patient selection. The authors attempted to minimize these biases by using strict inclusion criteria, multivariate analyses, and case-control evaluation.