✓ The authors conducted a retrospective review of the charts of 56 patients who underwent resection for multiple brain metastases. Of these, 30 had one or more lesions left unresected (Group A) and 26 underwent resection of all lesions (Group B). Twenty-six other patients with a single metastasis who underwent resection (Group C) were selected to match Group B by type of primary tumor, time from first diagnosis of cancer to diagnosis of brain metastases, and presence or absence of systemic cancer at the time of surgery. Statistical analysis indicated that Groups A and B were also homogeneous for these prognostic indicators. Median survival duration was 6 months for Group A, 14 months for Group B, and 14 months for Group C. There was a statistically significant difference in survival time between Groups A and B (p = 0.003) and Groups A and C (p = 0.012) but not between Groups B and C (p > 0.5). Brain metastasis recurred in 31% of patients in Group B and in 35% of those in Group C; this difference was not significant (p > 0.5). Symptoms improved after surgery in 65% of patients in Group A, 83% in Group B, and 84% in Group C. Symptoms worsened in 13% of patients in Group A, 6% in Group B, and 0% in Group C. Groups A, B, and C had complication rates per craniotomy of 8%, 9%, and 8%, and 30-day mortality rates of 3%, 4%, and 0%, respectively. Guidelines for management of patients with multiple brain metastases are discussed. The authors conclude that surgical removal of all lesions in selected patients with multiple brain metastases results in significantly increased survival time and gives a prognosis similar to that of patients undergoing surgery for a single metastasis.
Rajesh K. Bindal, Raymond Sawaya, Milam E. Leavens and J. Jack Lee
Ajay K. Bindal, Rajesh K. Bindal, Harry van Loveren and Raymond Sawaya
✓ The authors report on a study of eight cases of intracranial plasmacytoma to identify the risk of progression to multiple myeloma and suggest the treatment required for cure of solitary lesions. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma or myelomatous changes was made in the immediate postoperative period in four patients (50%), two of whom had skull base lesions. Of the four remaining patients, three were treated with complete surgical resection and radiation therapy and had no recurrence of plasmacytoma or progression to multiple myeloma during mean follow up of 12 years (range 2–25 years); one patient underwent subtotal surgical resection and had recurrence of the tumor despite radiation therapy.
It is concluded that multiple myeloma is unlikely to develop during the long term in patients with intracranial plasmacytoma who do not develop multiple myeloma or myelomatous changes in the early postoperative period. However, lesions that infiltrate the skull base are not likely to be solitary, and patients who harbor these neoplasms should undergo complete evaluation and close follow-up review to exclude multiple myeloma. A recurrence of solitary intracranial plasmacytoma is possible with subtotal surgical resection despite radiation therapy. Definitive treatment should consist of complete surgical resection with adjuvant radiation therapy.
Rajesh K. Bindal, Raymond Sawaya, Milam E. Leavens, Kenneth R. Hess and Sarah H. Taylor
✓ Results of reoperation in 48 patients who developed recurrent brain metastases between January 1984 and April 1993 are presented. Median time from first craniotomy to diagnosis of recurrence (time to recurrence) was 6.7 months. Median Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score prior to reoperation was 80. Recurrence was local in 30 patients, distant in 16 patients, and both local and distant in two patients. Median survival time after reoperation was 11.5 months. There were no operative mortalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that presence of systemic disease (p = 0.008), KPS scores less than or equal to 70 (p = 0.008), time to recurrence of less than 4 months (p = 0.008), age greater than or equal to 40 years (p = 0.51), and primary tumor type of breast or melanoma (p = 0.028) negatively affected patient survival time. These five factors were used to develop a grading system (Grades I–IV). Patients categorized in Grade I had a 5-year survival rate of 57%, whereas the median survival time of patients in Grades II, III, and IV was 13.4, 6.8, and 3.4 months, respectively (p < 0.0001).
Overall, 26 patients developed a second recurrence after reoperation. Seventeen patients underwent a second reoperation, whereas nine did not. Patients undergoing a second reoperation survived a median of 8.6 additional months versus 2.8 months for those who did not (p < 0.0001).
This study concludes that reoperation for recurrent brain metastasis can prolong survival and improve quality of life. A second reoperation can also increase survival. Five factors influence survival: status of systemic disease, KPS score, time to recurrence, age, and type of primary tumor. The grading system using these five factors correlates with survival time. Reoperation should be approached with caution in Grade IV patients because of their poor prognosis.
Ajay K. Bindal, Rajesh K. Bindal, Kenneth R. Hess, Almon Shiu, Samuel J. Hassenbusch, Wei Ming Shi and Raymond Sawaya
✓ Surgery and radiosurgery are effective treatment modalities for brain metastasis. To compare the results of these treatment modalities, the authors followed 31 patients treated by radiosurgery and 62 patients treated by surgery who were retrospectively matched. Patients were matched according to the following criteria: histological characteristics of the primary tumor, extent of systemic disease, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score, time to brain metastasis, number of brain metastases, and patient age and sex. For patients treated by radiosurgery, the median size of the treated lesion was 1.96 cm3 (range 0.41–8.25 cm3) and the median dose was 20 Gy (range 12–22 Gy). The median survival was 7.5 months for patients treated by radiosurgery and 16.4 months for those treated by surgery; this difference was found to be statistically significant using both univariate (p = 0.0018) and multivariate (p = 0.0009) analyses. The difference in survival was due to a higher rate of mortality from brain metastasis in the radiosurgery group than in the surgery group (p < 0.0001) and not due to a difference in the rate of death from systemic disease (p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis showed that the higher mortality rate found in the radiosurgery group was due to a greater progression rate of the radiosurgically treated lesions (p = 0.0001) and not due to the development of new brain metastasis (p = 0.75).
On the basis of their data, the authors conclude that surgery is superior to radiosurgery in the treatment of brain metastasis. Patients who undergo surgical treatment survive longer and have a better local control. The data lead the authors to suggest that the indications for radiosurgery should be limited to surgically inaccessible metastatic tumors or patients in poor medical condition. Surgery should remain the treatment of choice whenever possible.