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Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Alan H. Daniels, Robert A. Hart, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Daniel M. Sciubba, Tamir Ailon, Douglas C. Burton, Eric Klineberg, Christopher P. Ames and The International Spine Study Group

T he surgical management of adult spinal deformity (ASD) can provide significant improvements in pain, disability, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 6 , 7 , 28 , 34 , 36–38 , 40–45 However, these procedures are technically demanding and are associated with a high complication rate. The patient population suitable for these complicated surgeries continues to increase, including patients of advanced age. 2 , 16 , 17 , 27 The reported complication rates in the literature are varied and range from 14% to 71%. 11 , 13 , 39 , 47 , 48 It has been

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Justin K. Scheer, Taemin Oh, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Alan H. Daniels, Daniel M. Sciubba, D. Kojo Hamilton, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Peter G. Passias, Robert A. Hart, Douglas C. Burton, Shay Bess, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Eric O. Klineberg, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

A dult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery remains technically challenging and is associated with high rates of complications, one of which is pseudarthrosis. 8–11 , 22 , 27 The rates of pseudarthrosis in ASD have ranged from 0% to 35%, 5 , 8–10 with one comprehensive review citing pseudarthrosis as the most frequent long-term complication of those studied, reporting a rate of 7.6%. 27 Patients who develop pseudarthrosis are at risk for instrumentation failure and may require revision surgery. Risk factors for pseudarthrosis have been studied and include

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Kseniya Slobodyanyuk, Caroline E. Poorman, Justin S. Smith, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Richard Hostin, Shay Bess, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Frank J. Schwab and Virginie Lafage

A dult spinal deformity (ASD) is a significant source of disability worldwide. 8 , 10 , 12 In the absence of significant or progressive neurological deficits, initial treatment is usually nonoperative, with conversion to surgery for nonresponders; the idea is that successful nonoperative management can spare the risks and pain of more invasive treatment. 9 , 20 The nonoperative approach generally consists of a combination of treatments including bracing, physical therapy and exercise, narcotic and nonnarcotic pain medications, interventional procedures

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Thomas J. Buell, Davis G. Taylor, Ching-Jen Chen, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith and Shay Bess

TO THE EDITOR: We read with great interest the outstanding article by Safaee and colleagues 4 ( Safaee MM, Deviren V, Dalle Ore C, et al: Ligament augmentation for prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and proximal junctional failure in adult spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine 28 :512–519, May 2018 ). The authors compared outcomes of proximal junctional kyphosis/failure (PJK/PJF) between a historical cohort and a treatment group of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients receiving ligamentous augmentation at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), 1 level

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Thomas J. Buell, Shay Bess, Ming Xu, Frank J. Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey and Justin S. Smith

P roximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following multilevel, instrumented spine fusion for adult spinal deformity (ASD), and may result in pain, worsening deformity, and/or neurological deficit requiring revision surgery. 8 , 15 , 18 , 21 , 24 , 28 , 37 , 38 , 42 Risk factors for PJK include older age, comorbidities such as obesity and osteopenia/osteoporosis, inadequate surgical correction (under- or over-correction) of spinal deformities, and fusion to the pelvis. 21 , 22 , 28 , 29 , 31 , 42 Although risk factors for PJK have been

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Michael P. Kelly, Michael A. Kallen, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, Douglas C. Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Virginie Lafage, Frank J. Schwab, Han Jo Kim, Eric O. Klineberg, Shay Bess and the International Spine Study Group

M easurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in medicine is a necessary endeavor, as it makes possible comparisons of intervention effectiveness and evaluations of quality of care. 14 , 15 HRQOL measurements also aid healthcare-related decision making. In adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, for example, HRQOL measurements support patient and surgeon decision making with respect to both appropriate timing for surgery and the outcome expectations of patients and surgeons alike. HRQOL instruments may be generic measures of health, such as the

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Emily K. Miller, Brian J. Neuman, Amit Jain, Alan H. Daniels, Tamir Ailon, Daniel M. Sciubba, Khaled M. Kebaish, Virginie Lafage, Justin K. Scheer, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

predict mortality and self-management ability in nonoperatively treated populations, these indices have recently been shown to be better predictors of perioperative adverse events than chronological age alone. 6 , 11 , 12 , 17 Numerous methods for frailty quantification have been developed and validated. 3 , 4 , 7 , 13 , 15–18 Searle et al. proposed and validated a method for creating frailty indices by using large, existing patient databases. This step-by-step method was used to create a frailty index (the adult spinal deformity frailty index [ASD-FI]) in this study

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Alex Soroceanu, Douglas C. Burton, Bassel Georges Diebo, Justin S. Smith, Richard Hostin, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Christopher Ames, Thomas J. Errico, Shay Bess, Munish C. Gupta, Robert A. Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group

number is expected to increase. Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is common, and its incidence increases with age. The prevalence of ASD in the elderly population has been investigated, with Schwab et al. 56 reporting rates of ASD up to 68% in patients over the age of 65 years. Regarding ASD treatment, multiple reports have documented the superiority of surgical intervention and its potential ability to improve pain and disability, the 2 primary presenting complaints of patients with ASD. 5 , 23 , 61 , 62 However, several authors have identified high complication

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Justin K. Scheer, Jessica A. Tang, Justin S. Smith, Frank L. Acosta Jr., Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Benjamin Blondel, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Vedat Deviren, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames and the International Spine Study Group

established and treatment options defined and clarified. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of cervical alignment parameters and related outcome measures that may provide guidance for proper surgical treatment and highlight deficiencies in the current literature. Comparisons to established spinal pelvic parameters that predict disability in thoracolumbar surgery will be described. Other pathologies that are closely influenced by cervical deformity, including ASD and myelopathy, are also discussed. Cervical Spine Alignment

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Michael P. Kelly, Lukas P. Zebala, Han Jo Kim, Daniel M. Sciubba, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Shay Bess, Eric Klineberg, Gregory Mundis Jr., Douglas Burton, Robert Hart, Alex Soroceanu, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage and International Spine Study Group

C omplex adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgeries are increasing in incidence, as the population ages and the revision burden grows. 15 , 16 Reconstructive surgeries for ASD are associated with long operative times and high estimated blood losses (EBLs). Consequently, resuscitation of these patients frequently requires transfusions of autologous (AUTO) or allogeneic (ALLO) packed red blood cells (PRBCs) to maintain circulating hemoglobin levels, in an effort to minimize perioperative complications. 18 In fact, spine surgery is one of the most common