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  • Author or Editor: Annette M. Molinaro x
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Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Jing Li, Joseph A. Osorio, Darryl Lau, Annette M. Molinaro, Arnau Benet and Mitchel S. Berger


Though challenging, maximal safe resection of insular gliomas enhances overall and progression-free survival and deters malignant transformation. Previously published reports have shown that surgery can be performed with low morbidity. The authors previously described a Berger-Sanai zone classification system for insular gliomas. Using a subsequent dataset, they undertook this study to validate this zone classification system for predictability of extent of resection (EOR) in patients with insular gliomas.


The study population included adults who had undergone resection of WHO Grade II, III, or IV insular gliomas. In accordance with our prior published report, tumor location was classified according to the Berger-Sanai quadrant-style classification system into Zones I through IV. Interobserver variability was analyzed using a cohort of newly diagnosed insular gliomas and independent classification scores given by 3 neurosurgeons at various career stages. Glioma volumes were analyzed using FLAIR and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.


One hundred twenty-nine procedures involving 114 consecutive patients were identified. The study population from the authors’ previously published experience included 115 procedures involving 104 patients. Thus, the total experience included 244 procedures involving 218 patients with insular gliomas treated at the authors’ institution. The most common presenting symptoms were seizure (68.2%) and asymptomatic recurrence (17.8%). WHO Grade II glioma histology was the most common (54.3%), followed by Grades III (34.1%) and IV (11.6%). The median tumor volume was 48.5 cm3. The majority of insular gliomas were located in the anterior portion of the insula with 31.0% in Zone I, 10.9% in Zone IV, and 16.3% in Zones I+IV. The Berger-Sanai zone classification system was highly reliable, with a kappa coefficient of 0.857. The median EOR for all zones was 85%. Comparison of EOR between the current and prior series showed no change and Zone I gliomas continue to have the highest median EOR. Short- and long-term neurological complications remain low, and zone classification correlated with short-term complications, which were highest in Zone I and in Giant insular gliomas.


The previously proposed Berger-Sanai classification system is highly reliable and predictive of insular glioma EOR and morbidity.