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  • Author or Editor: Volker Seifert x
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Andreas Raabe, Jürgen Beck, Stefan Rohde, Joachim Berkefeld and Volker Seifert

Object

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional rotational angiography (3D-RA) data into a surgical navigation system and to assess its accuracy and potential clinical benefit.

Methods

The study cohort consisted of 16 patients with 16 intracranial aneurysms who had been scheduled for routine or emergency surgery. Rotational angiography data were exported using a virtual reality modeling language file format and imported into the BrainLAB VectorVision2 image-guided surgery equipment. During 3D-RA the position of the head was measured using a special headframe. The authors also determined the accuracy of 3D-RA image guidance and the clinical benefit as judged by the surgeon, including, for example, early identification of branching vessels and the aneurysm.

There was good correspondence between the 3D-RA–based navigation data and the intraoperative vascular anatomy in all cases, with a maximum error of 9° of angulation and 9° of rotation. In eight cases, the surgeon determined that the 3D-RA image guidance facilitated the surgical procedure by predicting the location of the aneurysm or the origin of a branching artery that had been covered by brain tissue and blood clots.

Conclusions

The integration of 3D-RA into surgical navigation systems is feasible, but it currently requires a new perspective-registration technique. The intraoperative 3D view provides useful information about the vascular anatomy and may improve the quality of aneurysm surgery in selected cases.

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Erdem Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Patrick Schuss, Ági Oszvald, Andreas Raabe, Volker Seifert and Jürgen Beck

Object

The object of this study was to describe the rapid closure technique in decompressive craniectomy without duraplasty and its use in a large cohort of consecutive patients.

Methods

Between 1999 and 2008, supratentorial rapid closure decompressive craniectomy (RCDC) was performed 341 times in 318 patients at the authors' institution. Cases were stratified as 1) traumatic brain injury, 2) subarachnoid hemorrhage, 3) intracerebral hemorrhage, 4) cerebral infarction, and 5) other. A large bone flap was removed and the dura mater was opened in a stellate fashion. Duraplasty was not performed—that is, the dura was not sutured, and a dural substitute was neither sutured in nor layed on. The dura and exposed brain tissue were covered with hemostyptic material (Surgicel). Surgical time and complications of this procedure including follow-up (> 6 months) were recorded. After 3–6 months cranioplasty was performed, and, again, surgical time and any complications were recorded.

Results

Rapid closure decompressive craniectomy was feasible in all cases. Complications included superficial wound healing disturbance (3.5% of procedures), abscess (2.6%) and CSF fistula (0.6%); the mean surgical time (± SD) was 69 ± 20 minutes. Cranioplasty was performed in 196 cases; the mean interval (± SD) from craniectomy to cranioplasty was 118 ± 40 days. Complications of cranioplasty included epidural hematoma (4.1%), abscess (2.6%), wound healing disturbance (6.1%), and CSF fistula (1%).

Compared with the results reported in the literature for decompressive craniectomy with duraplasty followed by cranioplasty, there were no significant differences in the frequency of complications. However, surgical time for RCDC was significantly shorter (69 ± 20 vs 129 ± 43 minutes, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions

The present analysis of the largest series reported to date reveals that the rapid closure technique is feasible and safe in decompressive craniectomy. The surgical time is significantly shorter without increased complication rates or additional complications. Cranioplasty after a RCDC procedure was also feasible, fast, safe and not impaired by the RCDC technique.

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Erdem Güresir, Patrick Schuss, Hartmut Vatter, Andreas Raabe, Volker Seifert and Jürgen Beck

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze decompressive craniectomy (DC) in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with bleeding, infarction, or brain swelling as the underlying pathology in a large cohort of consecutive patients.

Methods

Decompressive craniectomy was performed in 79 of 939 patients with SAH. Patients were stratified according to the indication for DC: 1) primary brain swelling without or 2) with additional intracerebral hematoma, 3) secondary brain swelling without rebleeding or infarcts, and 4) secondary brain swelling with infarcts or 5) with rebleeding. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months (mRS Score 0–3 favorable vs 4–6 unfavorable).

Results

Overall, 61 (77.2%) of 79 patients who did and 292 (34%) of the 860 patients who did not undergo DC had a poor clinical grade on admission (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Grade IV–V, p < 0.0001). A favorable outcome was attained in 21 (26.6%) of 79 patients who had undergone DC. In a comparison of favorable outcomes in patients with primary (28.0%) or secondary DC (25.5%), no difference could be found (p = 0.8). Subgroup analysis with respect to the underlying indication for DC (brain swelling vs bleeding vs infarction) revealed no difference in the rate of favorable outcomes. On multivariate analysis, acute hydrocephalus (p = 0.009) and clinical signs of herniation (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with an unfavorable outcome.

Conclusions

Based on the data in this study the authors concluded that primary as well as secondary craniectomy might be warranted, regardless of the underlying etiology (hemorrhage, infarction, or brain swelling) and admission clinical grade of the patient. The time from the onset of intractable intracranial pressure to DC seems to be crucial for a favorable outcome, even when a DC is performed late in the disease course after SAH.

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Andreas Raabe, Peter Nakaji, Jürgen Beck, Louis J. Kim, Frank P. K. Hsu, Jonathan D. Kamerman, Volker Seifert and Robert F. Spetzler

Object. The authors prospectively compared a new technique of surgical microscope-based indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography with intraoperative or postoperative digital subtraction (DS) angiography.

Method. The technique was performed during 187 surgical procedures in which 124 aneurysms in 114 patients were clipped. Using a newly developed setup, the ICG technique has been integrated into an operating microscope (Carl Zeiss Co., Oberkochen, Germany). A microscope-integrated light source containing infrared excitation light illuminates the operating field. The dye is injected intravenously into the patient, and intravascular fluorescence from within the blood vessels is imaged using a video camera attached to the microscope. The patency of parent, branching, and perforating arteries and documentation of clip occlusion of the aneurysm as shown by ICG videoangiography were compared with intraoperative or postoperative findings on DS angiography.

The results of ICG videoangiography corresponded with intra- or postoperative DS angiography in 90% of cases. The ICG technique missed mild but hemodynamically irrelevant stenosis that was evident on DS angiography in 7.3% of cases. The ICG technique missed angiographically relevant findings in three cases (one hemodynamically relevant stenosis and two residual aneurysm necks [2.7% of cases]). In two cases the missed findings were clinically and surgically inconsequential; in the third case, a 4-mm residual neck may require a second procedure. Indocyanine green videoangiography provided significant information for the surgeon in 9% of cases, most of which led to clip correction.

Conclusions. Microscope-based ICG videoangiography is simple and provides real-time information about the patency of vessels of all sizes and about the aneurysm sac. This technique may be useful during routine aneurysm surgery as an independent form of angiography or as an adjunct to intra- or postoperative DS angiography.

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Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe, Heiner Lanfermann, Joachim Berkefeld, Richard Du Mesnil De Rochemont, Friedhelm Zanella, Volker Seifert and Stefan Weidauer

Object

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects and outcome of transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) on brain tissue perfusion by using combined perfusion- and diffusion-weighted (PW/DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Methods

Ten consecutive patients with cerebral vasospasm treated using TBA were included in this prospective study. Hemodynamically relevant vasospasm was diagnosed using a standardized PW/DW MR imaging protocol. Digital subtraction angiography was used to confirm vasospasm, and TBA was performed to dilate vasospastic arteries. The PW/DW imaging protocol was repeated after TBA. The evaluation of the passage of contrast medium after standardized application using the bolus tracking method allowed for the calculation of the time to peak (TTP) before and after TBA.

Tissue at risk was defined based on perfusion delays in individual vessel territories compared with those in reference territories. In cases with proximal focal vasospasm, TBA could dilate spastic arteries. Follow-up PW/DW MR imaging showed the disappearance of, or a decrease in, the mismatch. A TBA-induced reduction in the perfusion delay of 6.2 ± 1 seconds (mean ± standard error of the mean) to 1.5 ± 0.45 seconds resulted in the complete prevention of infarction; a reduction in the delay of 6.2 ± 2.7 to 4.1 ± 1.9 seconds resulted in the preservation of those brain tissue parts having only small infarcts in the vessel territories. Without TBA, however, the perfusion delay remained or even increased (11.1 ± 3.7 seconds), and the complete infarction of a territory occurred.

Conclusions

Angioplasty of vasospastic arteries leads to hemodynamic effects that can be quantified using PW/DW MR imaging. In cases of a severe PW/DW imaging mismatch successful TBA improved tissue perfusion and prevented cerebral infarction. The clinical significance of PW/DW MR imaging and the concept of tissue at risk is shown by cerebral infarction in vessels not accessible by TBA.