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  • Author or Editor: Lonni R. Schultz x
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Lara W. Massie, Hesham Mostafa Zakaria, Lonni R. Schultz, Azam Basheer, Morenikeji Ayodele Buraimoh and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

The inability to significantly improve sagittal parameters has been a limitation of minimally invasive surgery for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Traditional cages have a limited capacity to restore lordosis. This study evaluates the use of a crescent-shaped articulating expandable cage (Altera) for MIS TLIF.

METHODS

This is a retrospective review of 1- and 2-level MIS TLIF. Radiographic outcomes included differences in segmental and lumbar lordosis, disc height, evidence of fusion, and any endplate violations. Clinical outcomes included the numeric rating scale for leg and back pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for low-back pain.

RESULTS

Thirty-nine patients underwent single-level MIS TLIF, and 5 underwent 2-level MIS TLIF. The mean age was 63.1 years, with 64% women. On average, spondylolisthesis was corrected by 4.3 mm (preoperative = 6.69 mm, postoperative = 2.39 mm, p < 0.001), the segmental angle was improved by 4.94° (preoperative = 5.63°, postoperative = 10.58°, p < 0.001), and segmental height increased by 3.1 mm (preoperative = 5.09 mm, postoperative = 8.19 mm, p < 0.001). At 90 days after surgery the authors observed the following: a smaller postoperative sagittal vertical axis was associated with larger changes in back pain at 90 days (r = −0.558, p = 0.013); a larger decrease in spondylolisthesis was associated with greater improvements in ODI and back pain scores (r = −0.425, p = 0.043, and r = −0.43, p = 0.031, respectively); and a larger decrease in pelvic tilt (PT) was associated with greater improvements in back pain (r = −0.548, p = 0.043). For the 1-year PROs, the relationship between the change in PT and changes in ODI and numeric rating scale back pain were significant (r = 0.612, p = 0.009, and r = −0.803, p = 0.001, respectively) with larger decreases in PT associated with larger improvements in ODI and back pain. Overall for this study there was a 96% fusion rate.

Fourteen patients were noted to have endplate violation on intraoperative fluoroscopy during placement of the cage. Only 3 of these had progression of their subsidence, with an overall subsidence rate of 6% (3 of 49) visible on postoperative CT.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of this expandable, articulating, lordotic, or hyperlordotic interbody cage for MIS TLIF provides a significant restoration of segmental height and segmental lordosis, with associated improvements in sagittal balance parameters. Patients treated with this technique had acceptable levels of fusion and significant reductions in pain and disability.

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Kevin Reinard, David R. Nerenz, Azam Basheer, Rizwan Tahir, Timothy Jelsema, Lonni Schultz, Ghaus Malik, Ellen L. Air and Jason M. Schwalb

OBJECTIVE

A number of studies have documented inequalities in care and outcomes for a variety of clinical conditions. The authors sought to identify racial and socioeconomic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), as well as the potential underlying reasons for those disparities, which could serve as areas of focus for future quality improvement initiatives.

METHODS

The medical records of patients with an ICD-9 code of 350.1, signifying a diagnosis of TN, at the Henry Ford Medical Group (HFMG) in the period from 2006 to 2012 were searched, and clinical and socioeconomic data were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses were conducted to assess potential racial differences in subspecialty referral patterns and the specific type of treatment modality undertaken for patients with TN.

RESULTS

The authors identified 652 patients eligible for analysis. Compared with white patients, black patients were less likely to undergo percutaneous ablative procedures, stereotactic radiosurgery, or microvascular decompression (p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in the likelihood of blacks and whites undergoing a procedure once they had seen a neurosurgeon (67% vs 70%, respectively; p = 0.712). Blacks and whites were equally likely to be seen by a neurologist or neurosurgeon if they were initially seen in either the emergency room (38% vs 37%, p = 0.879) or internal medicine (48% vs 50%, p = 0.806). Among patients diagnosed (268 patients) after the 2008 publication of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the American Academy of Neurology guidelines for medical therapy for TN, fewer than 50% were on medications sanctioned by the guidelines, and there were no statistically significant racial disparities between white and black patients (p = 0.060).

CONCLUSIONS

According to data from a large database from one of the nation's largest comprehensive health care systems, there were significant racial disparities in the likelihood of a patient undergoing a procedure for TN. This appeared to stem from outside HFMG from a difference in referral patterns to the neurologists and neurosurgeons.