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Paul M. Arnold, Paul A. Anderson and Robert F. Heary

the promise of less tissue destruction, earlier recovery, and shorter hospital stays. This edition of Neurosurgical Focus is timely, then, as it deals with complications of lumbar spine surgery and is another successful collaboration between the Lumbar Spine Research Society and the Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group. It is a testament to the popularity and urgency of this topic that we received over 60 submissions, unfortunately necessitating the rejection of several excellent articles due to space constraints. The remaining papers, however, provide an

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A1 Copyright held by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. You may not sell, republish, or systematically distribute any published materials without written permission from JNSPG. 2014 Introduction The objective of this study is to examine the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing non-instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine. Methods We present 376 patients who underwent in situ, non-instrumented arthrodesis for lumbar degenerative disease over a 20-year period at a single institution. Patients were followed for an

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George M. Ghobrial, Christopher M. Maulucci, Mitchell Maltenfort, Richard T. Dalyai, Alexander R. Vaccaro, Michael G. Fehlings, John Street, Paul M. Arnold and James S. Harrop

were “operative lumbar spine adverse events” and “nonoperative lumbar spine adverse events,” as well as within the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terminology: “postoperative complications” and “neurosurgery:surgical procedure, operative.” Furthermore, articles were supplemented with known literature on the topic as well as reviews of articles in references. Inclusion Criteria Articles included were those already published or published online prior to print, written in English, and that involved only human subjects. Comparative case series, comparative cohort

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positioning on IOP in lumbar spine fusion patients. Methods Surgeries were performed on 52 patients at one institution. Inclusion criteria were lumbar spine fusion in patients 18–80 years old. Exclusion criteria included eye disease or injury, history of cervical stenosis, neck pain, trauma or current neoplasm. The control group had the head in neutral position with the face parallel to the level operating room table and the experimental group had the neck extended so the face had an angle of inclination of 10° with the table. All patients were managed with Gardner

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Paul A. Anderson, Paul M. Arnold and Robert F. Heary

This issue of Neurosurgical Focus is unique in that it represents a collaboration between the Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group and the Lumbar Spine Research Society. It is the first such combined effort, and the expertise of both groups will enhance our understanding of how to care for patients who sustain trauma to the lumbar spine. In the past several years, there has been an increased understanding of the management of lumbar spine disorders, including trauma. These advances have included new information in the areas of biomechanics, biologics

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Robert F. Heary, Paul A. Anderson and Paul M. Arnold

I n July 2002, the first review of spondylolisthesis was published in Neurosurgical Focus . The field of spinal surgery has changed dramatically in the 15 years since that landmark publication. The topics of import in the past included the use of spinal instrumentation, whether to reduce a spondylolisthetic slip, and the role of decompression in the treatment of this disease. In the past 4 years, Neurosurgical Focus has partnered with the Lumbar Spine Research Society (LSRS) to produce 3 specialty issues focusing on the management and treatment of lumbar

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Robert F. Heary, Paul A. Anderson and Paul M. Arnold

This issue of Neurosurgical Focus is a joint venture in conjunction with the Lumbar Spine Research Society (LSRS). This edition has addressed a very common problem encountered by spine surgeons in the United States and abroad. As such, we received a very large number of papers that addressed the diagnosis, management, and outcomes related to the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Much has changed and evolved over the past few decades in treating patients with this disease. This issue of Neurosurgical Focus covers methods ranging from minimally invasive

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Paul M. Arnold

increased comorbidities, have motivated surgeons to improve patient outcomes, decrease costs, and minimize surgical trauma. Because of improved operative techniques, as well as a better understanding of the underlying pathology, patients who would not have been candidates even a few years ago are now undergoing surgery. Many of these procedures are now being performed via minimally invasive techniques. 2 , 4 , 5 The evolution of minimally invasive spine surgery has touched all aspects of lumbar spine pathology. Application of this technology has influenced the treatment

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Paul M. Arnold

provided the pediatric spine surgeon another useful tool with which to successfully achieve occipitocervical fixation. Disclosure Dr. Arnold serves as a consultant for Cerapedics, Medtronic, Life Spine, Integra Life, Spine Wave, Stryker Spine, and AOSpine; was previously a board member for AOSpine; has grants pending from AOSpine North America to his institution; was previously a direct stock owner in Z-Plasty; and was previously a co-chair of the program committee for the Lumbar Spine Research Society. References 1 Bekelis K , Duhaime AC , Missios S

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Paul M. Arnold, Troy D. Gust and Kathy Newell

S pinal intramedullary leiomyolipomas are rare tumors, generally occurring in young children. 1 , 4–9 , 11 These lesions represent far less than 1% of all reported spinal tumors. They are usually found in the lumbar spine and are sometimes found in association with a tethered spinal cord. The first case of a spinal leiomyolipoma was reported in 1876, 5 and since then there have been very sporadic reports of these lesions. In 1962, Schergna and Turinese 9 reported a myolipoma overlying the cauda equina, and in 1987 Knierim and colleagues 6 reported an