Kyung Sun Song, Ji Hoon Phi, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Yeoun Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Il Han Kim, Hyo Seop Ahn, Sung-Hye Park and Seung-Ki Kim
Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor; however, glioblastoma in children is less common than in adults, and little is known about its clinical outcome in children. The authors evaluated the long-term outcome of glioblastoma in children.
Twenty-seven children were confirmed to have harbored a glioblastoma between 1985 and 2007. The clinical features and treatment outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. All patients underwent resection; complete resection was performed in 12 patients (44%), subtotal resection in 12 patients (44%), and biopsy in 3 patients (11%). Twenty-four patients (89%) had radiation therapy, and 14 (52%) patients received chemotherapy plus radiation therapy. Among the latter, 5 patients had radiation therapy concurrent with temozolomide chemotherapy. Four patients with small-size recurrent glioblastoma received stereotactic radiosurgery.
The median overall survival (OS) was 43 months, and the median progression-free survival was 12 months. The OS rate was 67% at 1 year, 52% at 2 years, and 40% at 5 years. The median OS was significantly associated with tumor location (52 months for superficially located tumors vs 7 months for deeply located tumors; p = 0.017) and extent of removal (106 months for completely resected tumors vs 11 months for incompletely resected tumors; p < 0.0001).
The prognosis of glioblastoma is better in children than in adults. Radical resection followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be the initial treatment of choice.
Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Joongyub Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Il Han Kim, Hyo Seop Ahn, Hee Young Shin, In-One Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek and Kyu-Chang Wang
Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) frequently present with bifocal lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal areas. The pathogenesis of these bifocal GCTs has been the subject of controversy. Bifocal GCTs may be caused by synchronous tumors or by metastatic spread of tumor cells from one site to the other. The prognosis associated with bifocal GCTs has also been a cause of concern.
The authors constructed a single-institution patient cohort comprising 181 patients with intracranial GCTs. The clinical characteristics of bifocal GCTs were compared with those of suprasellar and pineal GCTs.
Bifocal GCTs were observed in 23 patients (12.8%). Eighteen patients presented with bifocal GCTs that were diagnosed as germinomas, but 5 patients exhibited mixed GCTs. Analyses of age distributions and comparisons of tumor sizes were compatible with a model of a metastatic origin of bifocal GCTs. Eleven patients (47.8%) presenting with bifocal GCTs exhibited tumor seeding at presentation. Tumor seeding was significantly associated with bifocal lesions (p < 0.001). Patients with bifocal germinomas showed significantly shorter event-free survival and overall survival than did those presenting with germinomas from a single site of origin.
Bifocal GCTs are not restricted to germinomas, as had been previously reported, but do include mixed GCTs. The authors hypothesize that bifocal GCTs may result from the metastatic spread of suprasellar or pineal GCTs. The bifocal presentation of germinomas may be a poor prognostic sign and should alert clinicians to the possibility of a disseminated disease.